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* To promote and encourage social and environmental education.
*To create awareness  in protection,preservation and restoration of environment,biodiversity and cultural tradition in India.
* To undertake research projects as well as to provide advisory service relating  to social,biological and environmental sciences,aquaculture,wildlife and wetlands.
*To undertake socio-cultural,environmental  and biodiversity awareness programmes by organising outreach programs,seminar,workshop,exhibition and nature study camp.
*To collaborate with non-Government and Government organizations to promote social,environmental and biological education,awareness,conservation and research.
*To publish journals,newsletters,books,booklets and leaflets containing research papers,review papers and popular articles for th efulfillment of  foregoing objectives.

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):1-8, 2005

EFFECT OF CERTAIN FACTORS ON THE MOTILITY AND SHORT-TERM PRESERVATION OF SPERMATOZOA OF OSPHRONEMUS GORAMI

Bindu L.

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata–700 053

ABSTRACT

Biological properties and quality of semen of the endangered fish, Osphronemus gorami were evaluated by determining the milt volume, spermatozoa concentration, percentage viability and duration of motility. The organic (sugar, cholesterol and protein) and inorganic constituents (phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) in the seminal plasma were analyzed. Among the three activating media used, fertilizing solution was found to be the ideal medium for sperm activation. The duration of spermatozoan motility was maximum at 8.75 x 10-3 salinity and at pH 8.0. Duration of motility was longer at lower temperatures and longest at 150 C. The fresh oxygenated milt of O. gorami could be stored in eppendorff tubes at 40 C in the refrigerator for seven days. The duration of motility and percentage viability of the spermatozoa were considerably enhanced by storing semen in oxygen than storage in air. Short-term preservation of undiluted oxygenated semen was found to be significantly better than storage using extenders.

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):9-14, 2005

Diel changes in the avian community at the edge of a shola forest of Western Ghat

Anulipi Aich, Barnali Sarkar and S. K. Mukhopadhyay*

Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Maulana Azad College, Kolkata-700 013, India

Abstract

Diel changes in avifaunal activities were studied at the edge of a shola forest patch belonging to Silent Valley National Park in the southern part of Western Ghat range of Kerala. Twentytwo species of birds under 15 families were recorded to be active at the study site. Highest population density of 19.46 ha-1 in the evening was recorded while in the morning the density was 9.42 ha-1. Under 12 families, 19 species were detected in the evening, while only 8 species under 7 families were found in the morning count. A higher diversity index (2.706), recorded from the evening counts, indicates less dominance (0.089) and more evenness (0.955) in comparison with morning counts where diversity estimated at 1.972 emphasises minimum evenness (0.948) and maximum dominance (0.219).

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):15-23, 2005

Zooplankton Diversity of Wetland
Ecosystems of Goa

S. R. Das, S. G. Patil* and N. C. Nandi

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata–700 053

ABSTRACT

Zooplankton diversity of two freshwater and two brackishwater wetlands of Goa have beeen investigated during 2001-02 and 2002-03. A total of 42 species of zooplankton have been recorded, of which 41 species are from freshwater wetlands, 29 species from brackish wetlands/ fisheries and 28 species common to both categories. This shows higher diversity of zooplankton in freshwater wetlands than in the brackishwater wetlands in Goa. The population density of different zooplankton groups as measured in terms of number of organisms per 50 litres of water have revealed higher population densities in freshwater wetlands (165-342 / 50 L) in comparison to that in brackishwater wetlands (86-181 / 50 L). In general, premonsoon population is higher than postmonsoon population in freshwater wetlands, while postmonsoon population is higher than premonsoon population in brackishwater wetlands.

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):25-32, 2005

Leptotheca mackenzii n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) Infecting the urinary bladder of the frog, Lemnectus limnocharis

C. Kalavati and B. Narayana Rao*

Depatment of Zoology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India

abstract

A new species of the genus Leptotheca, Thelohan, 1895, (Phylum: Myxozoa), L. mackenzii n. sp. is described from the urinary bladder of the rice field frog, Lemnectus limnocharis collected from the fields in Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh, south India. Spores of the parasite were oval measuring 11.2 m x 15.6 m with 16-18 distinct oblique striations. Polar capsules were bulb shaped, 6.2 m x 4.8 m in size. Polar filaments were thick, flat and 26.6 m long

 

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):33-37, 2005

impact of formulated plant protein based
feeds on production and organoleptic characteristics of carps

s. k. das*, j. k. manissery and t. j. varghese

College of Fisheries (UAS), Mangalore 575002

ABSTRACT

Three test diets were prepared by partial replacement of fish meal with leaf powders of Eichhornia crassipes (Diet E), Colocasia esculenta (Diet C) and Gliricidia maculata (Diet E). Test diets along with fish meal based control diet (Diet FM) were evaluated for their impacts on total fish production and organoleptic characteristics in two test species, viz., Catla catla and Labeo rohita after a period of culture of 112 days. Catla showed relatively higher production in fish meal based diet whereas rohu registered more production in leaf protein based diets. No significant difference existed in organoleptic characteristics of carps among treatments. However, the difference was significant (P 0.05) between attributes except raw fish of rohu.

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):39-42, 2005

POPULATION AND DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF POLYCHAETES IN AND AROUND A SEWAGE OUTFALL REGION IN CALCUTTA METROPOLIS

Sobhana Paul and N. C. Nandi

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata–700 053

ABSTRACT

Polychaete species as well as their population density and month-wise variations in population has been studied at the Tolly’s Nullah sewage outfall region, Kolkata. Three (Namalycastis fauveli, Dendronereis aesturina and Nephtys oligobranchia) out of six species recorded were found to be dominant at the outfall area. In general, polychaete occurs in higher abundance (as high as 192 no./ m2) during premonsoon (February to April) period. They are found to prefer sandy and weedy substratum.

 

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):43-47, 2005

MOLLUSCAN COMMUNITY AROUND DIGHA COAST,WEST BENGAL INDIA

M Dey and A. Mishra

Department of Marine Science, Unibversity of Calcutta, 35, B.C. Rpad,Kolkata –700019

ABSTRACT

The present paper deals with the Molluscan community of Digha coast, com,prising of 90 species belonging to 46 families.It includes 54 species of gastropods, 2 species of scaphopods,29 species of bivalves and 5 species of cephalopods. In this coast premonsoon season seems to be ideal in so far as molluscan biodiversity is concerned.

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):49-60, 2005

A CHECKLIST OF OPHIDIAN FAUNA OF
WEST BENGAL, India ALONG WITH THEIR STATUS, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSERVATION

B. K. Saha and N. C. Nandi*

‘Hamadryad’, 230, Green Park, Narendrapur, Kolkata–700 103

ABSTRACT

A checklist of ophidian fauna (snakes) comprising of 112 species belonging to 9 families from West Bengal, India is presented along with their Bengali names, status, distribution and conservation needs. Of these, 46 species are considered herein to be rare, 2 species as threatened and 1 species as endangered in West Bengal. The Hill and Dooars region represents the highest number of 79 species of ophidian fauna from West Bengal. A considerable number of ophidian species exclusively inhabit the coastal waters and the Himalayan foothills. Some suggestions towards conservation and management have been given and inclusion of King Cobra under Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act has been recommended.

 

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):61-65, 2005

POSSIBLE USE OF AMARANTH AS CATCH CROP FOR ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES INTERCROPPED WITH MULBERRY

Subhas Chandra Datta*

Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235.

ABSTRACT

Amaranth and mulberry were grown together along a ring in a large circular vessel; Meloidogyne incognita larvae (J2) were applied as an inoculum at the center of the ring so that all the plants were equidistant from the larvae. A control vessel containing the same plants without inoculation was maintained simultaneously. Plants were harvested 70 days after inoculation. Of the two plant species, amaranth received maximum infection in terms of root-gall number, root protein content, and nematode population in root and plant growth parameters. Thus amaranth could serve as highly effective catch crop/trap crop protecting other susceptible crops from invading larvae. The relative size and biomass of root system are responsible for relative susceptibility between two plants.

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):67-70, 2005

EFFECT OF HEAVY METALS ON POPULAT ION DYNAMICS OF AN ACRIDID, Oedaleus abruptus

Susanta Nath and P. Haldar*

Department of Zoology, Darjeeling Govt. College, Darjeeling-734 101, India
Email : susantanath@sify.com

ABSTRACT

The present communication deals with the effect of heavy metals pollution on the population fluctuation of an acridid, Oedaleus abruptus. The amount of lead, cadmium and copper crossed the recommended limit and tolerance limit in the industrial area. The study showed that toxic metal pollution has a significant role in population fluctuation of Oedaleus abruptus.

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):71-76, 2005

SEASONAL OCCURRENCE AND SEX RATIO IN ACRIDIDS (ACRIDIDAE: ORTHOPTERA) IN THE DRY DECIDUOUS FOREST OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

Hiroj Kr. Saha, Hena Anand and P. Haldar

Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan- 731235, West Bengal, India

Abstract

Acridids are one of the most dominant phytophagus insects which play an important role in the functioning of forest ecosystem. Seasonal occurrence and fluctuation and, sex ratio are important components of population structure in acridid community. The investigation on seasonal occurrence and sex ratio on three species of acridid, viz., Dittopternis venusta (Walker), Oedaleus abruptus (Thunberg), and Truxalis indica (Bol.) in dry deciduous forest of West Bengal revealed that D. venusta was the most dominant species in the study area. The population of acridids fluctuates in different season and highest number was observed during autumn. Statistical analysis reflects that male and female ratio are more or less equal.

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):77-80, 2005

emission spectroscopic studies on the inorganic trace elements of ceylonocotyle scoliocoelium (trematoda)

Ashoke Kumar Boral

Department of Zoology, Jogamaya Devi College, Kolkata–700 026

ABSTRACT

In different parasitic species a wide spectrum of inorganic trace elements is found due to difference in the rate of absorption and uptake processes. In the present investigation trace elements of Ceylonocotyle scoliocoelium (Trematoda) is computed. Presence of less amount of Cr and Cu suggests the weak tanning process of collagen in the tegument of C. scoliocoelium. Moderate amout of Co in this species suggests that it is associated with vitamin B12 synthesis and maturity of the worm. The higher quality of Zn indicates specific enzyme synthesis and existence of highly developed genital organ in C. scoliocoelium. Less amount of Ba does not significantly affects DNA polymerase and alkaline phosphatase activities but their actual functions in parasitic helminthes are not clear.

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):81-84, 2005

On New Records of THREE SPECIES OF Macrofungi, HELVELLA FROM DARJEELING HILLS, WEST BENGAL

Krishnendu Acharya*, Ranjana Pradhan2, Mau Bhattacharyya2, Jayanta Choudhury2, Prakash Pradhan2 and Manjula Rai

Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata–700 019

ABSTRACT

Darjeeling Himalaya due to its unique environmental condition, is a treasure house for the luxuriant growth of macrofungi. The abundancy and vastness of flora, their diverse habit, habitat and topography make the Himalaya a paradise for flourishing of macrofungi. The present paper is reporting for the first time from this area three species of Helvella, namely, H. atra Kon., H. lacunosa Afz. and H. crispa Scop. ex Fr.

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):85-92, 2005

a short review on the study of floral induction signals and patterns in arabidopsis mutants : an environmental response

Saikat kumar basu

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge,
Lethbridge, AB, Canada, TIK 3M4. Email : saikat.basu@uleth.ca

ABSTRACT

The reproductive success of higher plants depends on the initiation of flowering under the most favourable conditions. Floral induction in plants has been investigated to be regulated by a large number of environmental and endogenous factors. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants has allowed the identification of several important genes involved in the regulation of flowering time. Physiological, genetic and molecular analyses and biotechnological approaches of research investigations of flowering time mutants have shown that flowering is promoted or inhibited by several pathways, some of which are dependent on the environment. A number of genes have been isolated and characterised and their interactions have been studied in several of such floral-promotion pathways.

This review aims at the comparative study and analysis of different approaches of research investigations in understanding the floral induction signals and patterns in different Arabidopsis mutants, highlighting the key models, focusing on the development of further research in transgenic development and biotechnological approaches and using of floral induction genes in crops of importance for better yield and productivity.

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):93-102, 2005

A STUDY ON ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS OF THE Teacher AND THEIR PERCEPTION OF TEACHING ABOUT ENVIRONMENT

Madhumala Sengupta

Department of Education, Calcutta University, Kolkata

ABSTRACT

Teaching environmental education at school level is imperative as the aim of environmentalism is to develop and train an informed and sensitive future citizenry to protect the fragile biodiversity. The curriculum and teaching method of environmental education are controversial issues and much research work is going on to find out suitable curriculum and effective method of teaching. In this context of curriculum, two models have been proposed but the efficacy of the models needs to be researched extensively. Besides, the concept of environmental awareness and the nature of pro-environmental behaviour have been analysed and defined in behavioural terms.

It is a brief study to find out the level of environmental awareness of the trainee teachers and their attitude towards environmental education. The sample consisted of teachers of ICSE schools. The data were collected when they joined an in-service training programme organised by the Council for the Indian School Education Examinations. The subjects are yet to take formal B. Ed. degree. Their attitude towards inclusion of environmental education in B. Ed. syllabus is positive. They supported most of the variables related to effective teaching of environmental education, namely, activity method of teaching, team teaching, etc. Many of them even declared that teaching of environmental education along with other subjects will not pose any difficulty. The variables could have been analysed in greater detail had the sample size been larger.

 

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):103-107, 2005

THREAT TO FOLK CULTURE OF MARINE FISHERFOLK OF SUNDARBAN COAST, WEST BENGAL

S. K. Pramanik* and N. C. Nandi

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata–700 053

ABSTRACT

Folk culture serves as a mirror of a community. In this paper the folk culture of the marine fishing community of coastal Sundarban has been discussed and documented. The study shows how mass culture and mass communication affect the traditional culture and code of conduct of marine fisherfolk of Sundarban. It is suggested that the traditional marine fisherfolk of Sundarban should be encouraged to keep their cultural identity alive.

J.Environ. & Sociobiol.: 2(1&2):109-118, 2005

Evolutionary Arms Race : A Review On
The Red Queen Hypothesis

Shyamashree Dasgupta, Anulipi Aich and S. K. Mukhopadhyay

Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Maulana Azad College, Kolkata, India

ABSTRACT

Leigh Van Valen (1973), an evolutionary biologist of the University of Chicago, devised Red Queen hypothesis stating : "for an evolutionary system continuing development is needed in order to maintain its fitness relative to the system it is co-evolving with." This hypothesis maintains that biotic interactions are most important drivers of evolutionary changes. On the other hand, Court Jester hypothesis, a class of alternative ideas to Red Queen, regards physical-environment perturbations as indicators of major changes in organisms and ecosystem.

From evolutionary point of view, sexual reproduction is not most efficient way of reproducing due to major investment of time and energy for finding a mate. Rather, for spreading genes from one generation to the next asexually reproducing organisms have an edge. Because in sexual reproduction half of the genes from each parent is handed over to the next generation. In this context, Red Queen hypothesis talks about evolution of sex and recombination. This hypothesis describes two similar ideas that (i) co-evolution can lead to situations for which the probability of extinction is relatively constant over millions of years and that (ii) co-evolution, more particularly between hosts and parasites, could lead to sustained oscillations in genotype frequencies. According to this hypothesis the species had to "run" (evolve) a leg race instead of an arms race" in order to stay in the same place (extant). The Red Queen hypothesis emphasises the biotic interaction that imposes changes in species and clearly indicates the necessity of sexual reproduction in comparison with asexual reproduction for stabilising the evolution of sex and recombination.

 

Short Communication

Saving tiger for human health and economics- P . S . Bhatnagar 119-121

On the brachyuran crabs of Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, Goa- M.K. Dev Roy and N.C. Nandi 123

Differentiation between white ears inpaddy caused by yellow stem borer and neck blast- Sudip Mandal and Rupendu Ray 125-128

An inventory of Integrated Pest Management (IMP) measures for sustainable agriculture- Sudip Mandal 129-131

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vol 3(No. 1) June , 2006

STUDY ON THE POTENTIAL INSECT PESTS OF FENUGREEK

(TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM L.) IN NORTH AMERICA

WITH PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON THE WESTERN FLOWER

THRIPS (FRANKLINIELLA OCCIDENTALIS PERGANDE) IN THE

GREENHOUSE AND PLANT BUGS (LYGUS AND ADELPHOCORIS,

MIRIDAE, HEMIPTERA) IN THE FIELD

Saikat K. Basu1*, Surya N. Acharya2, Hctor A. Crcamo2 and James E. Thomas1

1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge,

4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1K 3M4

ABSTRACT

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is an annual legume crop cultivated in India and

other parts of the world. This crop is new to Canada and North America as a whole. The most

serious greenhouse pest of fenugreek was found to be the Western flower thrips. Potential

pests in the field are Lygus bugs, and to a lesser extent alfalfa plant bugs and aphids.

Fenugreek also attracted a number of beneficial predators, such as, ladybird beetles and

parasitoid wasps. This observation seems to be beneficial for the crop as we could see a

pattern of lower number of aphids and higher number of ladybird beetles in this crop compared

to alfalfa.

Key words : Legume crop, Greenhouse pest, Western Flower thrips, Lady bird

beetles, parasitoid wasps.

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF SOME PLANT SPECIES

IN THE VANDALORE RESERVE FOREST : FOOD PREFERENCES

OF DIABOLOCATANTOPS PINGUIS (ORTHOPTERA :

ACRIDIDAE)—A PARADIGM STUDY

D. Suresh Chand, S. Albert*, and K. P. Sanjayan*

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata–700 053

ABSTRACT

The plant community structure of the Vandalore Reserve Forest (Tamil Nadu) which represents

a natural scrub-jungle ecosystem, is described in terms of the dispersal and distribution

patterns of some of the plant species that are relatively common in the habitat. The

generalization that the tropical species are relatively uniformly dispersed did not hold. The

six plant species that were selected either randomly distributed or clumped in dispersion.

Atalantia monophylla which was clumped in dispersion had more abundance value, importance

index, and density in the forest, when compared to the other five plant species. The food

preference of Diabolocatantops pinguis (Walker) to the selected six plant species through a

‘no-choice’ experiment showed that it rejected Pavetta indica and Flacourtia indica. The

population analysis of D. pinguis by selecting 25 quadrats, suggested that the insect was

found to be present in 21 quadrats.

Key words : Plant community structure, dispersion, importance value,

Diabolocatantops pinguis, food preference.

ABSTRACT

Despite the environmental importance of Collembola, basic information on the occurrence

and ecology of these soil micro-arthropods is lacking, especially in Darjeeling Himalaya. To

address such gaps the present research was conducted with objectives to determine what

Collembola species inhabit the soil of two different altitudinal sites of Darjeeling Himalaya

as well as their vertical distribution and seasonal variations. Altogether 22 species of Collembola

belonging to three families were recorded from the hilltop and foothill sites of the Darjeeling

Himalaya. The maximum number of collembolan species was found in foothill site (20

species) than in the hilltop site (10 species) of Darjeeling Himalaya. The population density

of Collembola marked a significant decrease from upper most layers to deeper layers of soil.

The highest collembolan density was recorded during the spring season in both the sites but

lowest density was recorded during summer at Hilltop site and during autumn at Foothill site

of Darjeeling Himalaya.

Key words : Collembola; species composition; vertical distribution;

seasonal variation; hilltop; foothill; Darjeeling Himalaya.

SPECIES COMPOSITION, VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION

AND SEASONAL VARIATION OF COLLEMBOLA

IN HILLTOP AND FOOTHILL OF DARJEELING

HIMALAYA, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

Dhrubajyoti Pahari1*, Ashis Kumar Hazra1 and Goutam Kumar Saha2

1Apterygota section, Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata-700053, India.

ABSTRACT

Sexual dimorphism in the liver cells of Mastacembelus pancalus has been recognized. During

maturation and spawning seasons the amount of cytoplasmic granules in the hepatic cells of

female increased and nucleus becomes hypertrophied. But no remarkable seasonal changes in

the liver cells of male have been observed.

Key words : Seasonal changes, hepatic cells, Mastacembelus pancalus

SEASONAL HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE LIVER CELLS OF

MASTACEMBELUS PANCALUS (HAMILTON)

Subhasis Pal 1 and Dipak Kumar Mandal 2

1Balsi High School (H.S.), Balsi, Bankura-722 206

ABSTRACT

A field survey was conducted in and around Bokaro steel plant area, Jharkhand, India to

know the effect of continuous discharge of steel plant effluents on the soil microarthropods.

The density and diversity of soil microarthropods are low nearer to the steel plant area

compared to those of the distant sites. Acari was the predominant group followed by the

Collembola and other soil microarthropods are few in number. The soil factors like temperature,

relative humidity, moisture, pH and organic carbon have also been conducted. The relationship

between soil microarthropods and these physico-chemical parameters is analyzed statistically.

Key words: Soil microarthropods population, industrial effluents, steel plant

EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT ON THE POPULATION

STRUCTURE OF SOIL MICROARTHROPODS AT BOKARO STEEL

PLANT AREA, JHARKHAND – A PRELIMINARY STUDY

Dhrubajyoti Pahari*, Ashis Kumar Hazra, Manebendra Nath Moitra

and Arun Kumar Roy Mahato

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata-700053, India

ABSTRACT

In the present investigation, bioaccumulation of zinc was estimated in the gills and intestine

of Channa punctatus after 135 day exposure to such levels of zinc (0.1mg/1 and 0.2mg/1)

which are normally found in natural water bodies around Jaipur. Significant increase in

concentration of zinc was noted in the tissues both of the above organs. This increase was

dose and duration dependent.

Key words : Bioaccumulation, zinc, gills, intestine

BIOACCUMULATION OF ZINC IN THE GILLS AND

INTESTINE OF FRESHWATER FISH CHANNA PUNCTATUS,

AFTER CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ZINC

Neera Srivastava and Anupama Tyagi

Fish Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (Rajasthan)

ABSTRACT

The quality of the semen of the common table fish Puntius sarana was evaluated by

analyzing milt volume, concentration of spermatozoa, percentage viability, duration of

motility and scoring of motility of spermatozoa. The fertilizing solution was found to

be the most suitable medium for activation of spermatozoa. The duration of spermatozoan

motility was found to be highest at pH 8, temperature 5C and salinity 5.23 10-3. The

duration of motility and percentage viability of the spermatozoa were considerably

enhanced by storing semen in oxygen than storage in air. In short-term preservation at

4C the undiluted oxygenated milt showed better results than the milt stored in extenders.

Key words : Puntius sarana, spermatozoa, motility, viability.

THE PROPERTIES OF THE SPERMATOZOA OF PUNTIUS

SARANA AND ITS REFRIGERATED STORAGE

Bindu L.

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata–700 053

ABSTRACT

The liquid homeopathic medicine, Cina mother tincture (MT) and potentised Cina (200C &

1000C) prepared from the flowering meristems of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp were

applied by foliar spray on mulberry (Morus alba L. cv.S1) naturally infected with root-knot

disease caused by Meloidogyne incognia (Kofoid & White) Chitwood in sericulture field. All

the treatment were done four times at an interval of three days. All the treatment significantly

reduced nematode infection in terms of root gall number and nematode population in roots.

All the treated plants showed improved growth in terms of number of leaves, root and leafprotein

content. Cina 200C is more effective than Cina MT in all respect of nematode control

as well as growth of test plants. It is interesting that silkworm larvae (Bombyx mori L.)

feeding on the leaves of Cina- treated plants showed improved growth, increased silk production,

fewer feeding to cocoon formation and zero mortality rate. Homeopathic medicine Cina

would be cheap as well as non-phytotoxic and non-pollutant.

Keywords : Homeopathic medicine Cina, root-knot, mulberry, silkworm, silk

LIQUID HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE CINA ENRICHING

SERICULTURE INDUSTRY

Subhas Chandra Datta1* and Rupa Datta (Nag)2

1Department of zoology, Visbharati-University, Snatiniketan-731235, West Bengal, India

ABSTRACT

Feeding intensity and food spectrum of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) were monitored along with

water characteristics in Kulia beel of West Bengal during premonsoon and postmonsoon

seasons. Gastrosomatic Index and percentage of actively fed fish were significantly more

during postmonsoon period. Diet composition during two seasons exhibited distinct variations.

Such seasonal dynamics in feeding intensity and foraging was attributed to abundance of

plankton and spawning of fish.

Key words : Labeo rohita, foraging, feeding intensity.

DYNAMICS OF FORAGING IN LABEO ROHITA (HAMILTON)

DURING PREMONSOON AND POST MONSOON SEASONS IN

KULIA BEEL, WEST BENGAL

M. Sarkar and S. K. Das

Dept. of Fishery Biology & Resources Management, Faculty of Fishery Sciences, West Bengal

University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, 5, Budherhat Road, Panchasayar, Kolkata–700094

ABSTRACT

Dynamics of biological indices such as relative condition factor, Gastrosomatic index (GaSI)

and Hepatosomatic index (HSI) as well as food spectrum of Tilapia niloticus was monitored

for a period of one year in fishes procured from Nadia and, North and South 24 Parganas

districts of West Bengal. A significant variation (P 0.01) was observed in GaSI and HSI

values among males and females. The GaSI was found to be positively correlated with

feeding intensity and HSI. Blue green algae, green algae and decayed organic matter constituted

the major components of food items in different months exhibiting wide variations.

Key words : Tilapia niloticus, condition factor, feeding intensity, food spectrum

MONTHLY VARIATIONS IN FEEDING INTENSITY AND FOOD

SPECTRUM OF TILAPIA NILOTICUS (LINNEAUS) IN

RELATION TO BIOLOGICAL INDICES

A. Dey and S. K. Das

Dept. of Fishery Biology & Resources Management, Faculty of Fishery Sciences, West Bengal

University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, 5, Budherhat Road, Panchasayar, Kolkata–700094

ABSTRACT

Studies on biodiversity throughout the world are of immense value to mankind. The present

communication attempts to outline the existing biodiversity and our probable biofuture

considering the present trends of anthropogenic threats to biodiversity. The key elements of

biodiversity are ecological diversity, genetic diversity and species diversity. Damage to

biodiversity is caused due to habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation, introduction of exotic

species and diseases, environmental pollution and genetic assimilation. Biodiversity issue has

been discussed from the ecological, behavioral, genetic, evolutionary, social and aesthetic

point of views. For preserving species richness, knowledge about endemism, type of habitat,

keystone species, effective population size and animal behaviour requires consideration.

Geographic Information System (GIS) has been emerged as an effective tool for conservation

of species and their habitat. Current loss of biodiversity is primarily associated with expanding

human population and increasing consumerism. The consequences of such loss will threaten

the existence of man himself on this planet. Involvement of the people in biodiversity protection

movement with benefit sharing and policy level changes is considered to be urgent for

protecting our biofuture.

Key words : Biodiversity, evolution, extinction, biofuture, anthropogenic threats

BIODIVERSITY AND OUR BIOFUTURE :

A HOLISTIC UNDERSTANDING

F. B. Mandal

Department of Zoology, Bankura Christian College, Bankura–722 101, West Bengal

Vol 3(No.2) December ,2006

ABSTRACT

The mice selected from inbreed colony were divided into two groups to evaluate radio

protective efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract in intestine of Swiss albino mice (1g/kg body wt/

day). The first group was given Aloe vera orally for 15th consecutive day and served as

experimental group and other group received DDW (vol. equal to Aloe vera). On the 15th day,

after 30 min. of above treatment animals of both the groups were exposed to 0.5 Gy gamma

radiation and autopsied on 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs and day 5, 10 and 20. Mitotic figures, dead

cells and cells in crypt/crypt section of jejunum in animals of both control and experimental

groups were counted. Dead cells were completely absent in the experimental group. Mitotic

figures and crypt cell population were also higher in this group as compared with control

group. Thus, Aloe vera was found to have positive influence against radiation induced alterations

in intestine of Swiss albino mice.

Key words : Radiation, Aloe vera, crypt, gamma irradiation, Swiss albino

mice

EVALUATION OF RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF ALOE

VERA LEAF EXTRACT IN MOUSE INTESTINAL MUCOSA

AFTER LOW LEVEL EXPOSURE TO GAMMA RADIATION

PRASHASNIKA GEHLOT* AND P. K. GOYAL

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology,

University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India

ABSTRACT

The biochemical constituents, viz., protein, carbohydrate and lipid levels in the muscle tissue

of the fish Megalaspis cordyla has been studied in relation to the habitat conditions. Two

areas, i.e., Visakhapatnam harbour (St-1) receiving effluent discharges from different industries

and Bheemile coast at Gosthani estuary (St-2) devoid of industrial effluent discharges have

been chosen for the present study. The results showed that the protein, carbohydrate and lipid

levels in the samples of the fish collected from St-1 which is having considerable concentrations

of heavy metals (Zn, Pb and Cd) were less compared to those from St-2.

Key words : Aquatic pollution, Megalaspis cordyla, biochemical constituents

A STUDY ON THE BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN THE

MUSCLE TISSUE OF MEGALASPIS CORDYLA IN RELATION

TO HABITAT CONDITIONS

V. A. Naidu, L. M. Rao and K. Ramaneswari

Dept. of Zoology, Andhra University, Visakhaptnam–5300003, Andhra Pradesh, India

e-mail: Imrao4547@ yahoomail.com; rama16_kr@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT

Mebendazole is reported as a highly effective antihelminthic drug. This compound causes

mortality of the helminth parasites. In vitro administration of mebendazole lowered the total

protein content of Ceylonocotyle scoliocoelium, which is a common rumen trematode of

cattle. Death of the parasite after mebendazole treatment is supposed to be due to enzymatic

blockage of protein synthesis or due to activation of certain proteolytic substances. No change

of local lipid content is observed after mebendazole administration. Total protein and lipid of

C. scoliocoelium were estimated in spectrophotometry. Protein bands were studied by SDSPAGE.

Key words : Mebendazole, trematode, protein content, lipid content

INTRODUCTION

Trematode infection in cattle is widespread. C. scoliocoelium is a common trematode

ESTIMATION OF PROTEIN AND LIPID OF CEYLONOCOTYLE

SCOLIOCOELIUM (TREMATODA) FOLLOWING

ADMINISTRAION OF MEBENDAZOLE UNDER

IN VITRO CONDITION

A. K. BORAL1 AND S. MUKHERJEE2

1Department of Zoology, Jogamaya Devi College, Kolkata 700 026

ABSTRACT

The early stages of blue butterfly Tarucus callinara Butler is studied in detail. The larvae

damage the wild beri Zizyphus jujuba Lamk. growing in wild places of Punjab. The variety

of the host plant infested by the butterfly species do not grow more than two feet in height.

The third and fourth instars show myrmecophily with the ants of Crematogastor sp. The host

plants where ants available are preferred for oviposition by the female.

Key words : Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae, Tarucus, immature satges

OBSERVATIONS ON THE BIOLOGY OF SPOTTED PIERROT,

TARUCUS CALLINARA BUTLER (LEPIDOPTERA : LYCAENIDAE

: POLYOMMATINAE)

Avtar Kaur Sidhu

Lepidoptera Section, Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata–700 053, India

ABSTRACT

During the course of field investigation in 1990s, six dry fish centres of Sundarban coast, viz.,

Jambudwip, Kalisthan, Sagar, Bakkhali, Fraserganj and Mousuni were visited over the years

in winter 2-3 times in a year. Post harvest dry fish production techniques dealing with sorting,

dissecting and drying of fishes, which are followed by the fisherfolk of this coast, were

observed and described in this paper. This fisherfolk of this coast still depend on primitive

and indigenous technology for drying fishes on the sun in the open courtyard. Reasons for

persisting of primitive methods have also been discussed.

Key words : Dry fish, fisherfolk, fish meal, traditional technique

POST HARVEST DRY FISH PRODUCTION PROCESSES

OF SUNDARBAN COAST, WEST BENGAL

S. K. Pramanik and N. C. Nandi*

Social Environmental and Biological Association, H/4, Parui Government Housing Estate,

169, Biren Roy Road (West), Kolkata–700061

ABSTRACT

The state West Bengal has immense scope for fish production both from inland and marine

sectors for the reason that Fishermen's Co-operative Society was established in this state as

early as 1918 to enhance the fish production and at the same time to imporve the quality of

life of the fish farmers by organizing themselves. But, since its inception, the fish farmers are

suffering from constraints both in management and cultural aspects. So, a study was undertaken

to find out the main problems that co-operatives are experiencing. Fisheries co-operatives of

West Bengal are well known for their contribution to the development of small-scale fisheries.

The study unveiled that besides confronting with various problems the Fishermen's Cooperative

Societies working in the Noth 24-Paraganas district are successfully implementing

their planning at local level. Further, the Fishermen's Co-operative Societies can be one of the

thrust areas for fisheries development if Government and other voluntary organizations give

proper incentive in the functiong of the co-operatives especially in the management aspect.

Key words : Fishermen's Co-operative Soceity

PREVAILING CONSTRAINTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF

FISHERMEN'S CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY IN WEST BENGAL

A. K. Panigrahi

Department of Fishery Extension, West Bengal University of Animal and

Fishery Sciences, Chakgaria, Kolkata-700 094

ABSTRACT

During the course of faunistic surveys in Andhra Pradesh from April 1998 to December 2002,

a total of 671 insects belonging 14 species under five orders have been examined, of which

128 insects comprising of four species were found to be infected with twelve species of

nematode parasites. Of these, four species of parasitic nematodes, namely, Hammerschmidtiella

diesingi (Hammerschmidt, 1838) Chitwood, 1932, Cameronia biovata Basir, 1948, Gryllophila

skrjabini (Sergiev, 1923) Basir, 1956 and G. basiri Parveen and Jairajpuri, 1981, under the

family Thelastomatidae are dealt herein with detailed descriptions and measurements. These

are being recorded for the first time from Andhra Pradesh. The occurrence of different

nematodes species in insect hosts of the State are also communicated hereunder.

Key words :Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, Cameronia biovata, Gryllophila

skrjabini, G. basiri, nematode, insect, first record, occurrence

NEMATODE PARASITES OF INSECTS OF

ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

Viswa Venkat Gantait and Amalendu Chatterjee

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata–700 053

ABSTRACT

The paper deals with the taxonomy, incidence, intensity of infection and distribution pattern

of all the marine wood-borers reported so far from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It includes

18 species of molluscan and 9 species of crustacean wood-borers. A key to all the woodboring

species of these islands has been presented for the first time. Moreover, 3 species of

crustacean associates of these borers are also reported and effects of biofouling on the borers

are also discussed.

Key words : Marine wood-borers, key to the species, biofouling, distribution

pattern.

MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR

ISLANDS WITH KEY TO SPECIES

M. K. Dev Roy

Zoological Survey of India, Crustacea Section, 27 Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Kolkata-700016

ABSTRACT

Reduction of by-catch in two-seam overhang trawl was studied by using a square mesh

panels in forward part of upper belly and codend and comparison made with that of the

conventional two-seam overhang trawl. Fishing cruises were carried out randomly at depths

of between 24 m and 34 m isobaths in the inshore waters of Mangalore coast. Alternative

hauling technique was followed for maintaining similarity in towing direction, duration,

speed and depth of operation to minimize the possible errors between the trawls. The results

showed that the average by-catch was about 5.5 times lesser in two-seam overhang trawl

using a square mesh panels in forward part of upper belly and codend than conventional twoseam

hang trawl. However, the difference in reduction of by-catch in both conventional as

well as experimental trawls was not found to be statistically significant.

Key words : Two-seam overhang trawl, square mesh panels, by-catch

REDUCTION OF BY-CATCH IN TWO–SEAM OVERHANG

TRAWL USING A SQUARE MESH PANELS IN FORWARD PART

OF UPPER BELLY AND CODEND

N. A. Talwar*, D. S. Sheshappa and B. Hanumanthappa.

Dept. of Fishery Engineering College of Fisheries (UAS), Mangalore–575002

ABSTRACT

Investigations were carried out to study the comparative impact of 28 mm square meshes and

diamond meshes in codends of High Opening Bottom Trawl (HOBT) on different sizes of

dominant fin fishes. The fishing trials were carried out through the M.F.V.Doplhin, a

13.26 m OAL wooden stern trawler, fitted with Ruston engine developing 102 BHP at 1800

r.p.m. of College of fisheries (UAS), Mangalore. Atlernative haul techniques were followed

under identical condition to provide the equal chance for both the trawls. The results shown

that the 50% of retention lengths of Mackerels, Pomfrets, Soles and Ribbon fishes (Trichiurus

spp.) were comparatively found better in high opening bottom trawl (HOBT) with 28 mm

mesh size square mesh codend and for clupeids (Sardinella spp.) and Silver bellies (Leiognathus

spp.) were same in both the codends of square mesh and diamond mesh of same mesh size

in high opening bottom trawl (HOBT).

Key words :High opening bottom trawl (HOBT), square mesh, diamond mesh,

finfishes and 50% of retention length

IMPACT OF USING SQUARE MESH CODEND WITH 28 MM

MESH SIZE IN HIGH OPENING BOTTOM TRAWL (HOBT) ON

FIN FISHES OFF MANGALORE

N. A. Talwar* and B. Hanumanthappa

College of Fisheries (UAS), Mangalore-575002

ABSTRACT

The term ‘co-operation’ signifies, "an outcome that, despite individual cost, is good in some

appropriate sense for the members of a group of two or more individuals, and whose

achievement requires collective action" (Mesterton and Dugatkin, 1992). From the essence of

Darwin’s (1859) revolutionary theory "survival of the fittest", imperial forces of the society

gave two words undue importance, that is, "competition" and "struggle", until Kropotkin

(1902) proposed that not only competition but co-operation is also there. Thus according to

neo-Darwinian concept "an animal acts co-operatively only if it does things that benefit its

fitness (in terms of survival and reproduction) both for itself and the recipient of its action"

(Hamilton, 1964). At least four different forms of co-operation could easily be emphasized

– ‘Altruism’, ‘Kin selection’, ‘Reciprocal altruism’ and ‘Game theory’, which are thoroughly

discussed in the proper text. Co-operations are seen among a lot of individuals in activities

like ‘hunting’, ‘breeding’, ‘anti-predator behavior’, etc, in this animal kingdom among which

"co-operative hunting" and "co-operative breeding" are mostly noteworthy to support the fact.

Key words : Co-operation, cooperative hunting, cooperative breeding

CO-OPERATION AS AN EVOLUTIONARY CONSEQUENCE

Anulipi Aich, Utpal Singha Roy and S. K. Mukhopadhyay*

Government College of Engineering and Leather Technology,

LB Block, Sector-III, Kolkata-700 098.

ABSTRACT

The mice selected from inbreed colony were divided into two groups to evaluate radio

protective efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract in intestine of Swiss albino mice (1g/kg body wt/

day). The first group was given Aloe vera orally for 15th consecutive day and served as

experimental group and other group received DDW (vol. equal to Aloe vera). On the 15th day,

after 30 min. of above treatment animals of both the groups were exposed to 0.5 Gy gamma

radiation and autopsied on 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs and day 5, 10 and 20. Mitotic figures, dead

cells and cells in crypt/crypt section of jejunum in animals of both control and experimental

groups were counted. Dead cells were completely absent in the experimental group. Mitotic

figures and crypt cell population were also higher in this group as compared with control

group. Thus, Aloe vera was found to have positive influence against radiation induced alterations

in intestine of Swiss albino mice.

Key words : Radiation, Aloe vera, crypt, gamma irradiation, Swiss albino

mice

EVALUATION OF RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF ALOE

VERA LEAF EXTRACT IN MOUSE INTESTINAL MUCOSA

AFTER LOW LEVEL EXPOSURE TO GAMMA RADIATION

PRASHASNIKA GEHLOT* AND P. K. GOYAL

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology,

University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India

ABSTRACT

The biochemical constituents, viz., protein, carbohydrate and lipid levels in the muscle tissue

of the fish Megalaspis cordyla has been studied in relation to the habitat conditions. Two

areas, i.e., Visakhapatnam harbour (St-1) receiving effluent discharges from different industries

and Bheemile coast at Gosthani estuary (St-2) devoid of industrial effluent discharges have

been chosen for the present study. The results showed that the protein, carbohydrate and lipid

levels in the samples of the fish collected from St-1 which is having considerable concentrations

of heavy metals (Zn, Pb and Cd) were less compared to those from St-2.

Key words : Aquatic pollution, Megalaspis cordyla, biochemical constituents

A STUDY ON THE BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN THE

MUSCLE TISSUE OF MEGALASPIS CORDYLA IN RELATION

TO HABITAT CONDITIONS

V. A. Naidu, L. M. Rao and K. Ramaneswari

Dept. of Zoology, Andhra University, Visakhaptnam–5300003, Andhra Pradesh, India

e-mail: Imrao4547@ yahoomail.com; rama16_kr@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT

Mebendazole is reported as a highly effective antihelminthic drug. This compound causes

mortality of the helminth parasites. In vitro administration of mebendazole lowered the total

protein content of Ceylonocotyle scoliocoelium, which is a common rumen trematode of

cattle. Death of the parasite after mebendazole treatment is supposed to be due to enzymatic

blockage of protein synthesis or due to activation of certain proteolytic substances. No change

of local lipid content is observed after mebendazole administration. Total protein and lipid of

C. scoliocoelium were estimated in spectrophotometry. Protein bands were studied by SDSPAGE.

Key words : Mebendazole, trematode, protein content, lipid content

INTRODUCTION

Trematode infection in cattle is widespread. C. scoliocoelium is a common trematode

ESTIMATION OF PROTEIN AND LIPID OF CEYLONOCOTYLE

SCOLIOCOELIUM (TREMATODA) FOLLOWING

ADMINISTRAION OF MEBENDAZOLE UNDER

IN VITRO CONDITION

A. K. BORAL1 AND S. MUKHERJEE2

1Department of Zoology, Jogamaya Devi College, Kolkata 700 026

ABSTRACT

The early stages of blue butterfly Tarucus callinara Butler is studied in detail. The larvae

damage the wild beri Zizyphus jujuba Lamk. growing in wild places of Punjab. The variety

of the host plant infested by the butterfly species do not grow more than two feet in height.

The third and fourth instars show myrmecophily with the ants of Crematogastor sp. The host

plants where ants available are preferred for oviposition by the female.

Key words : Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae, Tarucus, immature satges

OBSERVATIONS ON THE BIOLOGY OF SPOTTED PIERROT,

TARUCUS CALLINARA BUTLER (LEPIDOPTERA : LYCAENIDAE

: POLYOMMATINAE)

Avtar Kaur Sidhu

Lepidoptera Section, Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata–700 053, India

ABSTRACT

During the course of field investigation in 1990s, six dry fish centres of Sundarban coast, viz.,

Jambudwip, Kalisthan, Sagar, Bakkhali, Fraserganj and Mousuni were visited over the years

in winter 2-3 times in a year. Post harvest dry fish production techniques dealing with sorting,

dissecting and drying of fishes, which are followed by the fisherfolk of this coast, were

observed and described in this paper. This fisherfolk of this coast still depend on primitive

and indigenous technology for drying fishes on the sun in the open courtyard. Reasons for

persisting of primitive methods have also been discussed.

Key words : Dry fish, fisherfolk, fish meal, traditional technique

POST HARVEST DRY FISH PRODUCTION PROCESSES

OF SUNDARBAN COAST, WEST BENGAL

S. K. Pramanik and N. C. Nandi*

Social Environmental and Biological Association, H/4, Parui Government Housing Estate,

169, Biren Roy Road (West), Kolkata–700061

ABSTRACT

The state West Bengal has immense scope for fish production both from inland and marine

sectors for the reason that Fishermen's Co-operative Society was established in this state as

early as 1918 to enhance the fish production and at the same time to imporve the quality of

life of the fish farmers by organizing themselves. But, since its inception, the fish farmers are

suffering from constraints both in management and cultural aspects. So, a study was undertaken

to find out the main problems that co-operatives are experiencing. Fisheries co-operatives of

West Bengal are well known for their contribution to the development of small-scale fisheries.

The study unveiled that besides confronting with various problems the Fishermen's Cooperative

Societies working in the Noth 24-Paraganas district are successfully implementing

their planning at local level. Further, the Fishermen's Co-operative Societies can be one of the

thrust areas for fisheries development if Government and other voluntary organizations give

proper incentive in the functiong of the co-operatives especially in the management aspect.

Key words : Fishermen's Co-operative Soceity

PREVAILING CONSTRAINTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF

FISHERMEN'S CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY IN WEST BENGAL

A. K. Panigrahi

Department of Fishery Extension, West Bengal University of Animal and

Fishery Sciences, Chakgaria, Kolkata-700 094

ABSTRACT

During the course of faunistic surveys in Andhra Pradesh from April 1998 to December 2002,

a total of 671 insects belonging 14 species under five orders have been examined, of which

128 insects comprising of four species were found to be infected with twelve species of

nematode parasites. Of these, four species of parasitic nematodes, namely, Hammerschmidtiella

diesingi (Hammerschmidt, 1838) Chitwood, 1932, Cameronia biovata Basir, 1948, Gryllophila

skrjabini (Sergiev, 1923) Basir, 1956 and G. basiri Parveen and Jairajpuri, 1981, under the

family Thelastomatidae are dealt herein with detailed descriptions and measurements. These

are being recorded for the first time from Andhra Pradesh. The occurrence of different

nematodes species in insect hosts of the State are also communicated hereunder.

Key words :Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, Cameronia biovata, Gryllophila

skrjabini, G. basiri, nematode, insect, first record, occurrence

NEMATODE PARASITES OF INSECTS OF

ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

Viswa Venkat Gantait and Amalendu Chatterjee

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata–700 053

ABSTRACT

The paper deals with the taxonomy, incidence, intensity of infection and distribution pattern

of all the marine wood-borers reported so far from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It includes

18 species of molluscan and 9 species of crustacean wood-borers. A key to all the woodboring

species of these islands has been presented for the first time. Moreover, 3 species of

crustacean associates of these borers are also reported and effects of biofouling on the borers

are also discussed.

Key words : Marine wood-borers, key to the species, biofouling, distribution

pattern.

MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR

ISLANDS WITH KEY TO SPECIES

M. K. Dev Roy

Zoological Survey of India, Crustacea Section, 27 Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Kolkata-700016

ABSTRACT

Reduction of by-catch in two-seam overhang trawl was studied by using a square mesh

panels in forward part of upper belly and codend and comparison made with that of the

conventional two-seam overhang trawl. Fishing cruises were carried out randomly at depths

of between 24 m and 34 m isobaths in the inshore waters of Mangalore coast. Alternative

hauling technique was followed for maintaining similarity in towing direction, duration,

speed and depth of operation to minimize the possible errors between the trawls. The results

showed that the average by-catch was about 5.5 times lesser in two-seam overhang trawl

using a square mesh panels in forward part of upper belly and codend than conventional twoseam

hang trawl. However, the difference in reduction of by-catch in both conventional as

well as experimental trawls was not found to be statistically significant.

Key words : Two-seam overhang trawl, square mesh panels, by-catch

REDUCTION OF BY-CATCH IN TWO–SEAM OVERHANG

TRAWL USING A SQUARE MESH PANELS IN FORWARD PART

OF UPPER BELLY AND CODEND

N. A. Talwar*, D. S. Sheshappa and B. Hanumanthappa.

Dept. of Fishery Engineering College of Fisheries (UAS), Mangalore–575002

ABSTRACT

Investigations were carried out to study the comparative impact of 28 mm square meshes and

diamond meshes in codends of High Opening Bottom Trawl (HOBT) on different sizes of

dominant fin fishes. The fishing trials were carried out through the M.F.V.Doplhin, a

13.26 m OAL wooden stern trawler, fitted with Ruston engine developing 102 BHP at 1800

r.p.m. of College of fisheries (UAS), Mangalore. Atlernative haul techniques were followed

under identical condition to provide the equal chance for both the trawls. The results shown

that the 50% of retention lengths of Mackerels, Pomfrets, Soles and Ribbon fishes (Trichiurus

spp.) were comparatively found better in high opening bottom trawl (HOBT) with 28 mm

mesh size square mesh codend and for clupeids (Sardinella spp.) and Silver bellies (Leiognathus

spp.) were same in both the codends of square mesh and diamond mesh of same mesh size

in high opening bottom trawl (HOBT).

Key words :High opening bottom trawl (HOBT), square mesh, diamond mesh,

finfishes and 50% of retention length

IMPACT OF USING SQUARE MESH CODEND WITH 28 MM

MESH SIZE IN HIGH OPENING BOTTOM TRAWL (HOBT) ON

FIN FISHES OFF MANGALORE

N. A. Talwar* and B. Hanumanthappa

College of Fisheries (UAS), Mangalore-575002

ABSTRACT

The term ‘co-operation’ signifies, "an outcome that, despite individual cost, is good in some

appropriate sense for the members of a group of two or more individuals, and whose

achievement requires collective action" (Mesterton and Dugatkin, 1992). From the essence of

Darwin’s (1859) revolutionary theory "survival of the fittest", imperial forces of the society

gave two words undue importance, that is, "competition" and "struggle", until Kropotkin

(1902) proposed that not only competition but co-operation is also there. Thus according to

neo-Darwinian concept "an animal acts co-operatively only if it does things that benefit its

fitness (in terms of survival and reproduction) both for itself and the recipient of its action"

(Hamilton, 1964). At least four different forms of co-operation could easily be emphasized

– ‘Altruism’, ‘Kin selection’, ‘Reciprocal altruism’ and ‘Game theory’, which are thoroughly

discussed in the proper text. Co-operations are seen among a lot of individuals in activities

like ‘hunting’, ‘breeding’, ‘anti-predator behavior’, etc, in this animal kingdom among which

"co-operative hunting" and "co-operative breeding" are mostly noteworthy to support the fact.

Key words : Co-operation, cooperative hunting, cooperative breeding

CO-OPERATION AS AN EVOLUTIONARY CONSEQUENCE

Anulipi Aich, Utpal Singha Roy and S. K. Mukhopadhyay*

Government College of Engineering and Leather Technology,

LB Block, Sector-III, Kolkata-700 098.

ABSTRACT

The mice selected from inbreed colony were divided into two groups to evaluate radio

protective efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract in intestine of Swiss albino mice (1g/kg body wt/

day). The first group was given Aloe vera orally for 15th consecutive day and served as

experimental group and other group received DDW (vol. equal to Aloe vera). On the 15th day,

after 30 min. of above treatment animals of both the groups were exposed to 0.5 Gy gamma

radiation and autopsied on 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs and day 5, 10 and 20. Mitotic figures, dead

cells and cells in crypt/crypt section of jejunum in animals of both control and experimental

groups were counted. Dead cells were completely absent in the experimental group. Mitotic

figures and crypt cell population were also higher in this group as compared with control

group. Thus, Aloe vera was found to have positive influence against radiation induced alterations

in intestine of Swiss albino mice.

Key words : Radiation, Aloe vera, crypt, gamma irradiation, Swiss albino

mice

EVALUATION OF RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF ALOE

VERA LEAF EXTRACT IN MOUSE INTESTINAL MUCOSA

AFTER LOW LEVEL EXPOSURE TO GAMMA RADIATION

PRASHASNIKA GEHLOT* AND P. K. GOYAL

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology,

University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India

ABSTRACT

The biochemical constituents, viz., protein, carbohydrate and lipid levels in the muscle tissue

of the fish Megalaspis cordyla has been studied in relation to the habitat conditions. Two

areas, i.e., Visakhapatnam harbour (St-1) receiving effluent discharges from different industries

and Bheemile coast at Gosthani estuary (St-2) devoid of industrial effluent discharges have

been chosen for the present study. The results showed that the protein, carbohydrate and lipid

levels in the samples of the fish collected from St-1 which is having considerable concentrations

of heavy metals (Zn, Pb and Cd) were less compared to those from St-2.

Key words : Aquatic pollution, Megalaspis cordyla, biochemical constituents

A STUDY ON THE BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN THE

MUSCLE TISSUE OF MEGALASPIS CORDYLA IN RELATION

TO HABITAT CONDITIONS

V. A. Naidu, L. M. Rao and K. Ramaneswari

Dept. of Zoology, Andhra University, Visakhaptnam–5300003, Andhra Pradesh, India

e-mail: Imrao4547@ yahoomail.com; rama16_kr@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT

Mebendazole is reported as a highly effective antihelminthic drug. This compound causes

mortality of the helminth parasites. In vitro administration of mebendazole lowered the total

protein content of Ceylonocotyle scoliocoelium, which is a common rumen trematode of

cattle. Death of the parasite after mebendazole treatment is supposed to be due to enzymatic

blockage of protein synthesis or due to activation of certain proteolytic substances. No change

of local lipid content is observed after mebendazole administration. Total protein and lipid of

C. scoliocoelium were estimated in spectrophotometry. Protein bands were studied by SDSPAGE.

Key words : Mebendazole, trematode, protein content, lipid content

INTRODUCTION

Trematode infection in cattle is widespread. C. scoliocoelium is a common trematode

ESTIMATION OF PROTEIN AND LIPID OF CEYLONOCOTYLE

SCOLIOCOELIUM (TREMATODA) FOLLOWING

ADMINISTRAION OF MEBENDAZOLE UNDER

IN VITRO CONDITION

A. K. BORAL1 AND S. MUKHERJEE2

1Department of Zoology, Jogamaya Devi College, Kolkata 700 026

ABSTRACT

The early stages of blue butterfly Tarucus callinara Butler is studied in detail. The larvae

damage the wild beri Zizyphus jujuba Lamk. growing in wild places of Punjab. The variety

of the host plant infested by the butterfly species do not grow more than two feet in height.

The third and fourth instars show myrmecophily with the ants of Crematogastor sp. The host

plants where ants available are preferred for oviposition by the female.

Key words : Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae, Tarucus, immature satges

OBSERVATIONS ON THE BIOLOGY OF SPOTTED PIERROT,

TARUCUS CALLINARA BUTLER (LEPIDOPTERA : LYCAENIDAE

: POLYOMMATINAE)

Avtar Kaur Sidhu

Lepidoptera Section, Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata–700 053, India

ABSTRACT

During the course of field investigation in 1990s, six dry fish centres of Sundarban coast, viz.,

Jambudwip, Kalisthan, Sagar, Bakkhali, Fraserganj and Mousuni were visited over the years

in winter 2-3 times in a year. Post harvest dry fish production techniques dealing with sorting,

dissecting and drying of fishes, which are followed by the fisherfolk of this coast, were

observed and described in this paper. This fisherfolk of this coast still depend on primitive

and indigenous technology for drying fishes on the sun in the open courtyard. Reasons for

persisting of primitive methods have also been discussed.

Key words : Dry fish, fisherfolk, fish meal, traditional technique

POST HARVEST DRY FISH PRODUCTION PROCESSES

OF SUNDARBAN COAST, WEST BENGAL

S. K. Pramanik and N. C. Nandi*

Social Environmental and Biological Association, H/4, Parui Government Housing Estate,

169, Biren Roy Road (West), Kolkata–700061

ABSTRACT

The state West Bengal has immense scope for fish production both from inland and marine

sectors for the reason that Fishermen's Co-operative Society was established in this state as

early as 1918 to enhance the fish production and at the same time to imporve the quality of

life of the fish farmers by organizing themselves. But, since its inception, the fish farmers are

suffering from constraints both in management and cultural aspects. So, a study was undertaken

to find out the main problems that co-operatives are experiencing. Fisheries co-operatives of

West Bengal are well known for their contribution to the development of small-scale fisheries.

The study unveiled that besides confronting with various problems the Fishermen's Cooperative

Societies working in the Noth 24-Paraganas district are successfully implementing

their planning at local level. Further, the Fishermen's Co-operative Societies can be one of the

thrust areas for fisheries development if Government and other voluntary organizations give

proper incentive in the functiong of the co-operatives especially in the management aspect.

Key words : Fishermen's Co-operative Soceity

PREVAILING CONSTRAINTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF

FISHERMEN'S CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY IN WEST BENGAL

A. K. Panigrahi

Department of Fishery Extension, West Bengal University of Animal and

Fishery Sciences, Chakgaria, Kolkata-700 094

ABSTRACT

During the course of faunistic surveys in Andhra Pradesh from April 1998 to December 2002,

a total of 671 insects belonging 14 species under five orders have been examined, of which

128 insects comprising of four species were found to be infected with twelve species of

nematode parasites. Of these, four species of parasitic nematodes, namely, Hammerschmidtiella

diesingi (Hammerschmidt, 1838) Chitwood, 1932, Cameronia biovata Basir, 1948, Gryllophila

skrjabini (Sergiev, 1923) Basir, 1956 and G. basiri Parveen and Jairajpuri, 1981, under the

family Thelastomatidae are dealt herein with detailed descriptions and measurements. These

are being recorded for the first time from Andhra Pradesh. The occurrence of different

nematodes species in insect hosts of the State are also communicated hereunder.

Key words :Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, Cameronia biovata, Gryllophila

skrjabini, G. basiri, nematode, insect, first record, occurrence

NEMATODE PARASITES OF INSECTS OF

ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

Viswa Venkat Gantait and Amalendu Chatterjee

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata–700 053

ABSTRACT

The paper deals with the taxonomy, incidence, intensity of infection and distribution pattern

of all the marine wood-borers reported so far from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It includes

18 species of molluscan and 9 species of crustacean wood-borers. A key to all the woodboring

species of these islands has been presented for the first time. Moreover, 3 species of

crustacean associates of these borers are also reported and effects of biofouling on the borers

are also discussed.

Key words : Marine wood-borers, key to the species, biofouling, distribution

pattern.

MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR

ISLANDS WITH KEY TO SPECIES

M. K. Dev Roy

Zoological Survey of India, Crustacea Section, 27 Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Kolkata-700016

ABSTRACT

Reduction of by-catch in two-seam overhang trawl was studied by using a square mesh

panels in forward part of upper belly and codend and comparison made with that of the

conventional two-seam overhang trawl. Fishing cruises were carried out randomly at depths

of between 24 m and 34 m isobaths in the inshore waters of Mangalore coast. Alternative

hauling technique was followed for maintaining similarity in towing direction, duration,

speed and depth of operation to minimize the possible errors between the trawls. The results

showed that the average by-catch was about 5.5 times lesser in two-seam overhang trawl

using a square mesh panels in forward part of upper belly and codend than conventional twoseam

hang trawl. However, the difference in reduction of by-catch in both conventional as

well as experimental trawls was not found to be statistically significant.

Key words : Two-seam overhang trawl, square mesh panels, by-catch

REDUCTION OF BY-CATCH IN TWO–SEAM OVERHANG

TRAWL USING A SQUARE MESH PANELS IN FORWARD PART

OF UPPER BELLY AND CODEND

N. A. Talwar*, D. S. Sheshappa and B. Hanumanthappa.

Dept. of Fishery Engineering College of Fisheries (UAS), Mangalore–575002

ABSTRACT

Investigations were carried out to study the comparative impact of 28 mm square meshes and

diamond meshes in codends of High Opening Bottom Trawl (HOBT) on different sizes of

dominant fin fishes. The fishing trials were carried out through the M.F.V.Doplhin, a

13.26 m OAL wooden stern trawler, fitted with Ruston engine developing 102 BHP at 1800

r.p.m. of College of fisheries (UAS), Mangalore. Atlernative haul techniques were followed

under identical condition to provide the equal chance for both the trawls. The results shown

that the 50% of retention lengths of Mackerels, Pomfrets, Soles and Ribbon fishes (Trichiurus

spp.) were comparatively found better in high opening bottom trawl (HOBT) with 28 mm

mesh size square mesh codend and for clupeids (Sardinella spp.) and Silver bellies (Leiognathus

spp.) were same in both the codends of square mesh and diamond mesh of same mesh size

in high opening bottom trawl (HOBT).

Key words :High opening bottom trawl (HOBT), square mesh, diamond mesh,

finfishes and 50% of retention length

IMPACT OF USING SQUARE MESH CODEND WITH 28 MM

MESH SIZE IN HIGH OPENING BOTTOM TRAWL (HOBT) ON

FIN FISHES OFF MANGALORE

N. A. Talwar* and B. Hanumanthappa

College of Fisheries (UAS), Mangalore-575002

ABSTRACT

The term ‘co-operation’ signifies, "an outcome that, despite individual cost, is good in some

appropriate sense for the members of a group of two or more individuals, and whose

achievement requires collective action" (Mesterton and Dugatkin, 1992). From the essence of

Darwin’s (1859) revolutionary theory "survival of the fittest", imperial forces of the society

gave two words undue importance, that is, "competition" and "struggle", until Kropotkin

(1902) proposed that not only competition but co-operation is also there. Thus according to

neo-Darwinian concept "an animal acts co-operatively only if it does things that benefit its

fitness (in terms of survival and reproduction) both for itself and the recipient of its action"

(Hamilton, 1964). At least four different forms of co-operation could easily be emphasized

– ‘Altruism’, ‘Kin selection’, ‘Reciprocal altruism’ and ‘Game theory’, which are thoroughly

discussed in the proper text. Co-operations are seen among a lot of individuals in activities

like ‘hunting’, ‘breeding’, ‘anti-predator behavior’, etc, in this animal kingdom among which

"co-operative hunting" and "co-operative breeding" are mostly noteworthy to support the fact.

Key words : Co-operation, cooperative hunting, cooperative breeding

CO-OPERATION AS AN EVOLUTIONARY CONSEQUENCE

Anulipi Aich, Utpal Singha Roy and S. K. Mukhopadhyay*

Government College of Engineering and Leather Technology,

LB Block, Sector-III, Kolkata-700 098.

J.Environ & Sociobiol. 4(1):101-110 , 2007
 
ECOTOXICOLOGICAL IMPACTS ON SOME
INDIAN ECOSYSTEMS
A. K. Das
Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata-700 053

ABSTRACT
Ecotoxicology is an interdisciplinary field of study, intending to integrate both ecological and toxicological effects of pollutants and contaminants on living organisms, populations and communities within the defined ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies on Indian ecosystems are fragmentary and scattered although this country is very rich in ecodiversity and biodiversity. Based on major habitat classification as well as on geographical and geological features 10 ecosystems are recognised in India. These are forests (16 types), grasslands (5 types), deserts (3 types), wetlands (10 types), mangroves, coral reefs, marine, mountains, islands and ocean. However, for the convenience of assessing ecotoxicological impacts, Indian ecosystems are grouped under two broad categories, viz., aquatic and terrestrial. For assessing ecotoxicological impacts on aquatic ecosystems of this country those of the river Ganga were analysed, as an example, with additional dealings on marine ecosystems. Prime sources of pollutants and toxicants on these ecosystems, viz., industrial emissions, municipal effluents and agricultural run off and their impacts on aquatic communities are discussed. Ecotoxicological impacts on terrestrial ecosystems are also dealt with in similar fashion with special reference to high altitude ecosystems. Need for future research on this aspect is highlighted in the concluding remarks of this communication.
Key words : Ecotoxicology, ecosystem, pollutants, contaminants, toxicants


ASSESSMENT OF ECOTOXICOLOGICAL IMPACTS
Debkumar Datta
Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Centenary College
Rahara (Khardah), Kolkata 700118.

ABSTRACT
The present study primarily limits to toxicity studies on some animal models. One of the well referred pioneer work dates back to that of Duodroff et al. (1951), in which acute toxicity impacts of industrial wastes on fishes were accounted. For designing experiments, principles to be based on are accounted in the book of Frederick Sperling (1984). Log-probit analysis (Sprague 1971 and Finney 1971 vide Datta, 1996), applied for bioassay studies like LC50 or LD50 assessment, can be programmed in computer (Datta and Sinha 1987 and Datta 1996). Toxicity studies in aquatic systems can be arranged as static bioassay or flow-system bioassay. Comparative studies of acute and chronic toxicity are in reports per se. Quantal effects are recorded simultaneously. Behavioural changes due to toxic exposure are also recorded.
Depending on the doses toxicity thresholds are designed as slightly toxic, moderately toxic, etc. Impacts of toxicity are recorded at histopathological, biochemical and genetic levels. Genotoxic studies were earlier recorded by chromosomal changes at different stages of cell cycle, depending on the specimen. Such studies at DNA level are now-a-days conducted by Comet assay. Biomonitoring studies can also be another measure.
Key words : Biomonitoring, LC50, toxicants, entry, tolerance, storage and translocation, effect and response, dose response relationship, synergism, behavioural change, bioassay, comet assay.

CYTOTOXICITY OF PLATINATED ANTICANCER DRUG ON BONE MARROW CELL OF SWISS ALBINO MICE AND ITS MODULATION BY AN ANTIFUNGAL AGENT
Abhijit Bandyopadhyay and Samar Chakrabarti
Cancer Cytogenetics Unit; Zoology Department, Burdwan University, West Bengal

ABSTRACT
Antitumor drugs generally exert toxic side effects on normal non-target tissues along with their tumoricidal activities. Preassessment of drug toxicity manifested in the form of clastogenicity is of value in monitoring various therapeutic modalities. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate the cytotoxic efficacy of a platinated compound, carboplatin on bone marrow (BM) cells of normal (non-tumor) and tumor bearing mice. The objective of the study was to find out the nature and extent of carboplatin cytotoxicity in an in vivo system and to explore the role of an antifungal agent in modulating the drug induced cytotoxicity in bone marrow cells of normal and tumor mice. The study was made on a mouse tumor model, viz., Ehrlich’s carcinoma maintained in vivo in random bred (sex and age matched) mice of Swiss albino origin. The cytotoxic potential of the drug was assessed considering chromosome aberrations (CAs) as end point, which only represent double strand-DNA breaks.
The observation made from the metaphase spreads and a comparison of the data with parallel control revealed the high cytotoxic potential of carboplatin on bone marrow cells of the mice (both non-tumor and tumor bearing). Other agent exerted a restricted modulating effect when it was administered simultaneously with the carboplatin injection. The drug-experienced specimens were processed accordingly for studying mitotic index and chromosome aberrations to find out a corelation, if any, between mitotic indices and chromosome aberrations. The results were compared with the drug vehicle injected control in one hand and with tumor bearing mice on the other. The discussions were made on modulating nature of the different agents and the influence of tumor load in the process.
Key words : Cytotoxicity, chromosome aberrations, anticancer drug, modulation, antifungal agent


ASPECTS OF REGULATORY GENOTOXICITY OF CHEMICALS IN MAMMALIAN CELLS
Sumita Bajpai
Hooghly Women’s College, Hooghly-712103, West Bengal

ABSTRACT
Regulatory Genotoxicity Tests are applicable for pharmaceuticals, in general. International Workshop on Stardardisation of Genotoxicity Test Procedures (1993) has given specific guidelines to be considered for mutagenicity or carcinogenicity of a chemical to mammalian cells. Bacterial reverse mutation test, greater than 50% reduction in cell number and 80% toxicity measured by assessment of cloning efficiency at highest concentration are the levels of cytotoxicity to be considered. Recent review has pointed that Unscheduled DNA Synthesis Test is also suitable to detect false positive result. Differences of active metabolites produced in in vivo and in vitro situations can be implied as one parameter for regulatory genotoxicity as genotoxicity is the broad term that refers to any deleterious change in genetic material.
Contamination of the environment with different types of insecticides is one of the greatest concern of human health of these days. It has been estimated by mutagenic tests that some of the common insecticides are strongly genotoxic. Chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, gene mutations and death of cells are the common findings of investigations of genotoxicity. Alkylating compounds are always mutagenic and organophosphorous insecticides are the important compounds to be carcinogenic after alkylation. Cytotoxicity of some common insecticides will be discussed here along with the aspects of regulatory genotoxicity tests.
Key words : Genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, chromosome aberrations, gene mutations


PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND BIOGENIC POLLUTION STUDIES OF GROUND WATER AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE DISTRICT OF BANKURA, WEST BENGAL
Samir Kumar Roy
Department of Chemistry, Bankura Christian College, Bankura-722101, West Bengal

ABSTRACT
The present study deals with the drinking water quality in different blocks of Bankura district, West Bengal. To obtain an overall assessment of the water quality in the district, as many as 350 samples of ground water were collected from different spot sources of the problem areas of the district during 2003-2004. An attempt has also been made to investigate data linkage correlation of morbidity and mortality in relation to bacteriological quality of water.
Key words : Drinking Water quality, coliform


ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS)—A MENACE OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Saurabh Chakraborty
Department of Zoology, Jhargram Raj College
Jhargram–721507, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal

ABSTRACT
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures that interfere with the function(s) of the endocrine system and consequently cause adverse health effects in an intact organism or its progeny or (sub) populations. Several field and laboratory studies have shown that exposure to certain EDCs has contributed to adverse effects in some wildlife species and populations. These effects vary from subtle changes in the physiology and sexual behaviour of species to permanently altered sexual differentiation. Most of the data comes from Europe and North America. Aquatic species at the top of the food chain are most affected, but effects have also been observed in terrestrial species. Some adverse effects observed in certain species are likely to be endocrine mediated, but in most cases, the causal link between exposure and endocrine disruption is unclear. To date, essentially all researches on EDCs have been driven by effects (or purported effects), many of which have caused public concern and made sensationalist stories in the media. Thus, for example, the possible decrease in sperm counts was very influential in highlighting the human issues, while intersex fish helped to highlight the wildlife aspects of the EDC issue. This is an extremely slow (and costly) way of scientific investigation. When an effect is observed, research is then carried out to determine the cause. As our understanding of the environment is very incomplete, there will always be a role for approaching many issues in this way. However, it would be more logical to start with a chemical and make an assessment of what effects, if any, it will induce.
Key words : Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC), mechanism of disruption, agonistic effect, antagonistic effect.

CADMIUM CHLORIDE STRESS IN RATTUS SP.
Sukanya Dutta and T. K. Mandal
Department of Zoology, Malda College, Malda, West Bengal

ABSTRACT
Cadmium is found at low concentration in the Earth’s crust, mainly as sulphide in mineral deposits. Since the earliest 20th century it has been used in a variety of applications. The scientific communities have drawn attention to the potential toxicity of cadmium and to the risk presented by its accumulation in man.
In the present study, considerable efforts have been given to observe the histological changes of some important organs and serological implications of CdCl2 toxicity on a mammalian system. The study was carried out on common white rats, Rattus sp. Histopathological observation under CdCl2 stress reveals the hepatocytic necrosis, neuropathy and polycystic ovary syndrome. Serological study suggests that cadmium binds with the RBC during transportation and causes damage to RBC membrane.
Key words : Cadmium chloride stress, histopathological changes, serological implications


CHEMICAL POLLUTANTS AND ITS EFFECTS ON FISH PHYSIOLOGY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ACCUMULATION, ABSORPTION AND EXCRETION
Apurba Ratan Ghosh, Sandipan Pal and Aloke Kumar Mukherjee
Department of Environmental Science,
University of Burdwan, Burdwan, West Bengal

ABSTRACT
Water pollution that alters the chemical composition, temperature, dissolved oxygen, or microbial composition of water and affects aquatic organisms including fishes has implications on human health, both directly and indirectly. The xenobiotics or contaminants come in contact with fishes through water or the natural food available in the medium. The chemical pollutants including heavy metals, once absorbed via gills or gut, undergo metabolism and finally absorbed through the epithelial cells, then usually bound to a protein and then transported by the blood to either storage point, such as, fat, or to the liver for transformation and/ or storage then excreted in the bile, or passed back into the blood for possible excretion by the kidney or gills. Harmful chemicals have different mode of actions and may tend to act on certain organs or physiological functions, usually more than one being affected. Fishes are exposed to both bioconcentration and biomagnification from eating lower on the food chain. Environmental hypoxia, i.e., lower air saturation level is one of the important thrust to both freshwater and marine fishes where oxygen concentration varies with depth, temperature, salinity, productivity, nutrient enrichment, meteorological conditions and plankton blooms. Environmental hypoxia or exposure to other chemical pollutants can induce a reduction in number of fish erythrocytes or inadequate amount of hemoglobin in the cells resulted in anemia. Cadmium causes anemia in a variety of fish species also. The most metals are absorbed by fishes in the ionic form except methylmercury. The outer surface of gills and intestinal tissues is a negative charge; therefore, it will attract metallic ions. The affinity of metals in the specific tissue is determined by the micro-environment of the tissue surface, viz., the mucosal surface of fishes is complex one, because it includes the epithelial membranes as well as mucous layer, encompassing a mixture of glycoproteins, mucopolysaccharides, assorted low molecular weight compounds and water. Uptake as well as accumulation of metals is directly correlated with pH of the luminal medium. The proximal portion of the intestine possesses more absorptive surface area where the lipophilic toxic metals are assimilated in much quantity. In the intestine metal accumulation is largely associated with plasma albumin and lipoproteins. The mechanism of metal uptake through the gut has been assumed to be simple diffusion and biotransformation of chemicals before excretion may be a process of passive diffusion.
Key words : Xenobiotics, bioconcentration, biomagnification, biotransformation environmental hypoxia


PESTICIDE POPS, THEIR IMPACTS AND SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT : A SYNTHESIS
F. B. Mandal, Anindita Mitra and S. K. Maitra*
Department of Zoology, Bankura Christian College, P.O. & Dist : Bankura, West Bengal

ABSTRACT
A number of toxic and persistent chemicals are used as essential materials for agricultural development and protection against insect-borne human diseases. An International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemical of UNEP has recorded a total of four million chemicals, both anthropogenic and natural, including those produced through biological processes. In addition, 30,000 new chemical compounds each year are also documented. Among these, 60,000–70,000 commonly used chemicals are present in air, water and food. Some chemicals are potentially toxic. On entering living organisms, toxins even in very dilute concentration cause malfunctioning
of vital activities and eventually lead to impaired health and even unwanted
death of the organisms. Toxins exert their effects at subcellular-, cellular-, system-, individual-, species-, population-, community- and ecosystem levels. Toxic and persistent chemicals undoubtedly require management for protecting the life support system on earth.
The Stockholm Convention (2004) on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) sets out control measures for 12 chemicals, the so called “dirty dozen”. Since the Stockholm Conference, the global chemical industry has grown almost nine folds and an annual growth rate of about 3 percent is expected to continue over the next three decades, with a considerable increase in trade as reported by OECD. Assuming the future of current trends of development, the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987 launched the concept of sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.
Thanks to biotechnologist for their innovations, solutions to some toxicological problems through genetically improved crops are currently available. But the goal of making our environment free from the man-made chemical hazards is yet to reach. The present communication attempts to examine all the relevant information including policy level actions to identify the future works for combating the pesticide POPs (viz., DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor, mirex and toxaphane) imposed problems considering both holistic and reductionism approaches for ensuring sustainable development.
Key words : Persidtent organic pollutant, pesticide, toxins


PLANT-PLANT BIOCHEMICAL ANTAGONISM
R. K. Bhakat1*, A. Bhattacharjee2 and U. K. Kanp1
1Department of Botany and Forestry, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721102, West Bengal
E.mail : rkbhakat@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
The present study shows that seed pretreatment of Mimosa with various concentrations of Lantana leaf extracts and leaf leachates for 24 hours duration reduced percentage germination, speed of seed germination and field emergence capacity. Levels of insoluble carbohydrate and protein and activities of catalase and dehydrogenase enzymes were significantly reduced in seed samples pretreated with leaf extracts and leaf leachates of Lantana. Seedling performance was found to be much poor when they were raised from seeds which underwent pretreatment with the plant extracts and leachates. This was measured in terms of root length, shoot length, total leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight of plants. Leaf extract and leaf leachate-induced reduced germinability and suppressed activities of catalase and dehydrogenase enzymes being the important phytotoxic indices, it can be concluded that Lantana can potentially render phytotoxic action on Mimosa.
Key words : Lantana camara, Mimosa pudica, phytotoxicity.


ECOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES OF SOME SELECTED WETLANDS OF PURULIYA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL
N. C. Nandi and Mousumi Roy
Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata–700 053

ABSTRACT
Three important wetlands of Puruliya district, West Bengal, viz., Indrabil near Indrabil Station, Saheb bundh of Puruliya town and Adra reservoir of Adra town have been selected and surveyed for ecological and hydrobiological study. These are freshwater wetlands and serve as important waterfowl habitats. The present paper deals with physiographical features, vegetation profile, limnological conditions, faunal resources (177 species under 67 families) and ecosystem services of these wetlands. The ecosystem goods and services offered by these three wetlands are enumerated. Based on the bioindicator species that are pollution sensitive, pollution tolerant, pollution resistant, an average BMWP (Bio Monitoring Working Party) score has been determined for these three wetlands. In overall, these three wetlands are in moderate state of pollution and among them Indrabil is comparatively clean or less polluted.
Key words : Ecology, ecosystem services, wetlands, West Bengal


CRUSTACEAN COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH OF SOME SELECTED WETLANDS OF WEST BENGAL
M. K. Dev Roy, Mousumi Roy* and N. C. Nandi*
Zoological Survey of India, 27 Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Kolkata–700016

ABSTRACT
Crustaceans are primarily aquatic organisms. They are mostly marine but there are many freshwater species inhabiting ponds, lakes, streams and rivers and occupy a basic position in aquatic food chain. In the present paper, crustacean communities of four selected wetlands of West Bengal, namely, Rabindra Sarovar, Nalban, Brace Bridge Nature Park and Mirik Lake have been studied. All these four water bodies are freshwater wetlands. Among these, Nalban and Brace Bridge Nature Park are sewage fed wetlands. Crustacean community of these wetlands is comprised of Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Conchostraca, Amphipoda, Isopoda and Decapoda. The list includes 36 species of zooplankton and macrozoobenthos. The study reveals highest representation of crustacean diversity in Rabindra Sarovar. Data obtained on water quality as well as general ecological parameters suggest that highest crustacean diversity is associated with habitat ecology, niche diversity, naturalness and ecosystem health of the wetlands.
Key words : Crustacean community, ecosystem health, wetlands, bioindicator


PLAY BEHAVIOUR IN FREE-LIVING LANGUR (SEMNOPITHECUS ENTELLUS) INFANTS
P. S. Bhatnagar* and R. Mathur
Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004, INDIA

ABSTRACT
Play behaviour in free-living langurs has been studied at Ambagarh Reserve Forest, near Jaipur, India using focal sampling (Altmann, 1974) for 317 hours on a unimale group of langurs of 102 individuals. Infants were classified as young (dark pelage, birth < 6 months) and old (grey pelage, 6 months to 12-15 months). Observations were recorded in 3 states: infant with mother (state 0), infant less than 2 feet away from mother (state 1) and infant more than 2 feet away from mother (state 2). Unlike old infants, young infants played while on mother and old infants played away from mother and in state 2, play alone, play with other infant and play with juvenile differed significantly (c2 = 18.01, df = 2, p < 0.01). Both natural and sexual selection seem to have played a role. Those patterns have evolved, which are adaptive. Play is replaced by grooming (which strengthens social bonding) in non-human primate and socialization in humans.These traits help in selecting potential mates. Comparison of human and langur infants indicates that young langur infants are comparable to 1st year and toddlers while old langur infants are similar in play profile to pre-schoolars and elementary . Influences of habitat quality on play behaviour in primates have been discussed.
Key words : Comparative play, infant, langur, human, habitat quality.


PRE AND POST ICE AGE ENVIRONMENTAL
FACTORS AND MODERN MAN
Dipak Ray
Taki Goverment College, Taki-743429, 24 Parganas (North), West Bengal

ABSTRACT
Homo sapiens (Modern man) made his first appearance on earth during the Pleistocence ice age and ultimately spreads out to occupy all the world's major landmasses. The ice age was a period of wide climate variation, with all the contienents experiencing frequent alternations and extremes of heat and cold, rain and drought, far sharper than recorded in recent centuries, Man's unique adaptability in the face of such violent environmental change was undoubtly a crucial factor both for his survival and his gradually developing dominance over others species.
Using a complex variety of analytical techniques, it is now possible to reconstruct at least some aspects of the earth's climate as far as the Precambrian era, more than 3000 million years ago. On the basis of the available records it is suggested that climatic conditions of the pre-ice age was favourable for the origin of Homo sapiens and related group from ape-like hominids in Africa, who were used to use weapons to kill their prey, even before the ice-age began.
Key words : Ice age, environments, Homo sapiens, Homo erectus
 
 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 119-138, 2007

A REVIEW OF PACHYNEURON SPECIES (HYMENOPTERA : PTEROMALIDAE) OF MIDDLE EAST

T. C. Narendran, S. Santhosh, Abhilash Peter, M. Sheeba, and M. C. Jilcy

Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Department of Zoology,

University of Calicut, Kerala, 673 635, India

 

 

ABSTRACT

The Pachyneuron species of Middle East countries are reviewed. Six new species from Yemen, viz., Pachyneuron neosolitarium Narendran sp. nov., P. tonyi Narendran & Santhosh sp. nov., P. fomium Narendran & Abhilash sp. nov., P. remosum Narendran & Sheeba sp. nov., P. stom Narendran & Jilcy sp. nov. and P. danium Narendran sp. nov. are described. All known species are commented upon. A key to species of Middle East countries are also included.

Key words : Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae, Pachyneuron, Taxonomy, New Species, Review, Key, Middle East

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 139-147, 2007

TWO NEW SPECIES OF PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH BANANA PLANTATIONS FROM WEST BENGAL, INDIA

Viswa Venkat Gantait*, Tanmaya Bhattacharya** and Amalendu Chatterjee

Nemathelminthes Section, Zoological Survey of India,
M-Block, New Alipur, Kolkata-700053, West Bengal, India

 

ABSTRACT

Two new species of phytophagous nematodes belonging to order Tylenchida are described and illustrated. The proposed new species Hirschmanniella mannai n. sp. and Helicotylenchus medinipurensis n. sp. were collected from banana plantations of Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal, India. Hirschmanniella mannai comes close to H. gracilis (De Man, 1880) Luc & Goodey, 1963 but differs from it significantly in the values of L, b, b and O. Besides, the stylet length, the location of excretory pore and the length of spicule are also different. Helicotylenchus medinipurensis resembles with H. tunisiensis Siddiqi, 1963 and H. belli Sher, 1966 by the truncate lip region, total body length and tail shape but shows marked differences from H. tunisiensis in the values of a, b, c and O and from H. belli in the values of a, b, c, c, m and O. Besides, stylet length, shape of stylet knob and location of phasmid in the proposed species also differ from both the closely related species.

Key words : Tylenchid nematodes, Hirschmanniella mannai n. sp., Helicotylenchus medinipurensis n. sp., banana plantation, West Bengal.

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 149-153, 2007

A NEW SPECIES OF ORASEMA CAMERON (HYMENOPTERA : EUCHARITIDAE) OF INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

P. Girish Kumar and T. C. Narendran*

Zoological Survey of India, ‘M’- Block, New Alipore, Kolkata-700 053, India.
E-mail : k_p_girish@yahoo.co.in

 

ABSTRACT

A new species of Orasema Cameron, viz., O. nirupama Girish Kumar and Narendran sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Kerala, India. Affinities of the species with its closest relatives are discussed. A checklist of species of Orasema Cameron of Indian subcontinent is also provided.

Key words : Orasema, new species, Eucharitidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 155-162, 2007

TWO NEW SEPTATE GREGARINES QUADRUSPINOSPORA hieroglyphae sp. n. AND GLOBULOCEPHALUS euconocephalae sp. n. IN GRASSHOPPERS  FROM SUNDARBAN REGION OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

Sudip Mandal  and Rupendu Ray*

Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Presidency College
 86/1 College Street, Kolkata–700 073, West Bengal, India.

 

ABSTRACT

Morphology and life history of two new septate gregarines (Apicomplexa : Conoidasida) Quadruspinospora hieroglyphae sp. n. and Globulocephalus euconocephalae sp. n. from grasshoppers, Hieroglyphus banian and Euconocephalus pallidus respectively from Sundarban regions of West Bengal have been described.

Key words :                Septate gregarine, Quadruspinospora, Globulocephalus, Grasshopper, Sundarban Regions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 163-168, 2007

Variation of group diversity in soil microarthropod community at different altitudes in the Darjeeling Himalayas,
West Bengal, India

M. N. Moitra, A. K. Sanyal and S. Chakrabarti*
Zoological Survey of India, New Alipore, Kolkata-700 053

 

 

Abstract

Soil samples were collected from eight sites with an approximate altitudinal gap of 500 m in the Darjeeling Himalaya in West Bengal. Microarthropods collected from soil were divided into four major groups, viz., oribatid mites, other mites, collembola and other microarthropods. Monthly and yearly group diversity of four groups of soil microarthropods were calculated using Shannon’s diversity index. Monthly group diversity was found to be negatively correlated with the abundance in most places. Correlation was also traced between some edaphic factors and group diversity. Temperature, moisture and pH were found to have some prominent impact on group diversity in some sites. Organic carbon showed no significant correlation probably because of its presence in sufficient quantity in soil. Both monthly and yearly group diversity were highest in the Tiger Hill.

Key words : Soil microarthropod, group diversity, edaphic factors, altitudes.

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 169-192, 2007

BRACHYURAN DIVERSITY IN COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS
OF TAMIL NADU

M. K. Dev Roy and N. C. Nandi
Zoological Survey of India, 27 Jawaharlal Nehru Road,
Kolkata-700016 (Email : malay_7@rediffmail.com)

 

Abstract

Diversity of brachyuran crabs of coastal ecosystems of Tamil Nadu is documented and critically analysed. The crabs reported so far from these ecosystems comprise of 344 species belonging to 154 genera under 23 families. Highest diversity of species has been observed at Gulf of Mannar (195 species) followed by Chennai coast (169 species), Palk Bay (98 species) and Parangipettai coast (84 species), while highest diversity of species has been encountered in the family Xanthidae (56 species) followed by Portunidae (53 species), Leucosidae (41 species), Majidae (36 species), Grapsidae (32 species) and Ocypodidae (19 species). Zoogeographical distribution of these species has been discussed along with endemicity. Amongst these crabs, 254 species are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region, 57 species are confined to the Indian Ocean and 25 species to Bay of Bengal. Habitat-wise distribution of 140 species of crabs has revealed the occurrence of 61 species in coral reef, followed by 40 species in mangroves, 23 species in backwater and 13 species in sandy habitats of this state. List of new taxa described so far from the state has also been given.

Key words : Brachyuran diversity, Tamil Nadu coasts, Zoogeographical distribution, Habitat-wise distribution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 193-198, 2007

A COMPARATIVE TAXONOMIC ACCOUNT OF FOUR COMPOSTING EARTHWORMS WITH NOTES ON THE POSSIBILITY OF USE OF PERIONYX SANSIBARICUS (OLIGOCHAETA : ANNELIDA) IN VERMICOMPOSTING INDUSTRY

S. Mitra and A. Misra
Zoological Survey of India, F.P.S Building, 27 J. L. Nehru Road, Kolkata-700016

 

ABSTRCT

Vermiculture and vermicomposting are now globally recognized sustainable livelihood activities related to sustainable organic farming. Selected species of earthworms have been used for vermicomposting purpose. So far three species, namely, Eisenia foetida (Savigny), Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and Perionyx excavatus Perrier, are widely used in vermicomposting activities. Of these three species, Eisenia foetida is originated from Europe, Eudrilus eugeniae from Africa and Perionyx excavatus is cosmopolitan in distribution. In this communication another species of earthworm, viz, Perionyx sansibaricus Michaelsen is reported as a prospective worm for use in commercial vermicomposting in semi-arid regions of West Bengal (Bankura, Purulia and West Midnapore districts) based on some earlier stray records as well as successful culture of this species by a farmer of West Bengal for such usage.

Key Words : Vermicomposting; comparative taxonomy; Perionyx sansibaricus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 199-204, 2007

Culture of Penaeus monodon using plant based additives in Indian Sundarbans

Arunava Mukherjee1, Banani Mandal1, Abhijit Mitra2 and Kakoli Banerjee3

1Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35, B. C. Road, Kolkata 700 019

 

ABSTRACT

Culture of Penaeus monodon occupies a dominating sector in Indian brackish water aquaculture and proper feed is the most important criteria in getting beneficial returns from shrimp culture. To evaluate the efficiency of feed, mixed with specially formulated plant feed additives with respect to shrimp growth, survival, production, feed conversion ratio and pond environment, experimental monoculture of Penaeus monodon (with stocking density 5 nos./m2), was carried out in two different islands (Chotomollakhali and Bali) of Indian Sundarbans. The shrimps were harvested at the end of 93 days and a production of 823.61 kg/ha and 952.20 kg/ha was obtained in the islands Chotomollakhali and Bali respectively.

Key words : Additives, monoculture, growth, production, Penaeus monodon.

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 205-208, 2007

A comparative study of the growth of post larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii using a commercial diet and laboratory prepared feeds

Bindu L and Joby K. Jose1
Zoological Survey of India, M Block, New Alipore, Kolkata

 

ABSTRACT

The effect of a commercial feed with three other laboratory formulated diets on the growth of M. rosenbergii was compared. Different feeds were prepared by replacement of animal protein in each diet, such as, clam meat (F1), prawn waste (F2) and fish meal (F3). Three other common ingredients in the prepared feed were elodea powder, groundnut oil cake and rice bran. The prawn waste based feed (F2) was found to be the best feed for the effective growth of M. rosenbergii. Also the growth was found to be significant at 1% level (p < 0.01) between different feeds.

Key words : M. rosebergii, animal protein, plant protein

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 209-214, 2007

INCREASED SILK PRODUCTION BY EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF NATURALLY INFECTED ROOT-KNOT AND BLACK LEAF SPOT DISEASES OF MULBERRY WITH ACACIASIDES

Subhas Chandra Datta1,* and  Rupa Datta(Nag) 2

1Eco-Club Research Unit, Kanchannagar D. N. Das High School, Kanchannagar, Burdwan 713102, West Bengal, India.

 

Abstract

Eight plots of sericulture land (0.176ha), each of 0.0022 ha, were grown with high bush mulberry plants of Morus alba L. (cv.S1) naturally infected with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood causing root-knot disease and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penzig) Penzig & Sacc. causing black leaf spot disease of mulberry. Acaciasides isolated from the funicles of Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. is highly effective at a low dose of 1.6 mg / plant in ameliorating the root-knot and black leaf spot diseases. Acaciasides soluble in water and applied by foliar spray and soil drench has increased the protein content of mulberry leaves. Silkworm larvae (Bombyx mori L.) feeding on the leaves of treated plants showed improved growth, increased silk production, fewer feeding to cocoon formation and zero mortality rate.

Key words : Mulberry, root-knot, black leaf spot, silkworm, silk

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 215-221, 2007

Allelopathic effects of Amaranthus

U. K. Kanp, R. K. Bhakat*, R. K. Das and A. Bhattacharjee1

Department of Botany and Forestry, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore-721 102,
West Bengal, India E-mail : rkbhakat@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract

Allelopathic effects of Amaranthus spinosus on normal and forcedly aged seeds were established from some reliable physiological and biochemical parameters. Leaf extract and leachate of Amaranthus strongly reduced the percentage and speed of germination in both acceleratedly aged and non-aged seeds. While sugar and amino acid levels were rapidly increased in the leachate of seeds pretreated with leaf extract and leachate, protein and RNA levels and catalase and dehydrogenase activities were significantly reduced. Inhibitory action was much more prominent in aged seed samples than nonaged ones. The present paper thus discusses this differential allelopathic action at normal and stressful (accelerated ageing) conditions.

Key words : allelopathy, Amaranthus spinosus, horse gram, leaf extract, leaf leachate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 223-228, 2007

Development and Good Governance : A Sociological Appraisal

Subhash  Biswas

Department of Sociology, SRL Mahavidyalaya, Majdia, Nadia, West Bengal

E : sbiswas2k@gmail.com

 

Abstract

We are now well aware that our so called development and progress have failed to solve some serious and prime problems of mankind like eradication of poverty, equitable sharing of resources, etc. Rather, execution of most of our developmental programmes endangers our future generations through excessive degradation of earth’s resources and pollution of environment. In this context, achievement of sustainable development is a great challenge facing mankind. To achieve this, existing governance requires to be replaced by good governance in its actual spirit. Good governance is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, and inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimized, views of all, more particularly of minorities are taken into account and voices of the most vulnerable section in the society are heard in decision-making.

Experiences from Andhra Pradesh reveal that indiscriminate development in the state along with bad governance minimizes the access to the natural resources. Various intervention by the state to raise revenues have resulted in breakdown of the support base of the poor, leading to the immense hardship to the vulnerable section of the society because of limited substitution facilities available for alternative sources of their livelihood.

Kerala experiences suggest that environmental management treats pollution and erosion issues as trade-off in the negotiation with entrepreneurs or government organizations. Economic modernization of such type brings with it an alienation that separates people from one another as well as from nature. This is also detrimental to the environment.

Good governance is ideal but difficult to achieve in its totality. Even then, actions must be taken to achieve this goal in order to ensure sustainable human development. One must keep in mind that development is meaningless unless it invites all people to participate in programmes and offers an open call with all sorts of transparency.

Key words :                Sustainable development, equitable sharing of resources, environmental management, good governance, environmental crisis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 229-236, 2007

Environmental Accounting : A Pre-requisite for Sustainable Development

Hirak Roy
Department of Commerce, S. r. Lahiri Mahavidyalaya, Majdia, Nadia

Email : hirak1@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract

Conventional accounting procedure provides a dubius picture about the business of any institution as it falls short in providing information about the qualitative aspects (in quantitative terms) in general and environmental aspects in particular. Environmental aspects include natural resources, work environment, academic environment, administration environment, etc. To fill up this gap environmental accounting is necessary to provide above information to the concerned stake holders of the institution to make them conscious about their environment for sustainable development.

In this context, an attempt is made here to show inadequacies of general accounting procedures that are being used in all types of institution. In addition, a microstudy is made and a model is presened to exhibit how institutions can present environmental accounts that are required for any institution which are interested and/or concerned about sustainable environment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 237-240, 2007

Prospect of ECOTOURISM IN BAKKHALI COAST,
WEST BENGAL

Rumpa Das and S. C. Santra
Department of Environmental Science, Kalyani University, Nadia, West Bengal

 

 

Abstract

Tourism is a new category of industrial development which often damages the environment unless adequate safeguard is taken up. Coastal tourism in Bakkhali beach is not an exception. In the present communication an attempt has been made to address the issues of implementing ecotourism programme in Bakkhali area.

Key words : Bakkhali beach, ecotourism, tourist facilities, tourist development

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 4(2) : 241-244, 2007

ESTIMATION OF TOTAL HEXOSE AND PENTOSE OF TWO DIGENETIC TREMATODES, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Ceylonocotyle scoliocoelium

A. K. Boral

Reader, Department of Zoology, Jogamaya Devi College, Kolkata 700 026

 

ABSTRACT

Gastrothylax crumenifer and Ceylonocotyle scoliocoelium are two common rumen trematode parasites of cattle. Saccharides play essential roles in this anaerobic habitat to maintain physiological activity. Hexose and pentose help in synthesis of co-enzymes and nucleic acids respectively. Present comparative estimations of hexose and pentose of two species suggest that variations may be due to variable up-take capacity or variable in metabolic activities.

Key words : Hexose, Pentose, rumen, trematode, TCA.


J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 1-6, 2008

A PROFILE OF SERICULTURE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO WEST BENGAL

Susanta Kumar Chattopadhyay* and Kunal Sarkar*

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, Krishnath College, Berhampore, Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

Sericulture is an agro-based labour intensive cottage industry. This industry has multi-dimensional aspects including cultivation and maintenance of host plants, rearing of silkworm larvae, reeling of silk extruded by the matured larvae, weaving and printing of woven silk. Silk was originated in China in around 3000 B.C. India is the only country of the world which produces all four types of silk, viz., Tasar, Eri, Muga and Mulberry silk and is the second largest silk producing country of the world next to China. At present almost 6 million people are engaged in different activities of this industry. This industry can provide remunerative employment of 13 persons /hectare/year. Major mulberry silk producing states of India are Karnataka (7301 MT), Andhra Pradesh (5084 MT), West Bengal (1520 MT), Tamil Nadu (443 MT), Jammu and Kashmir (90 MT) and others (181 MT). West Bengal is one of the major traditional states of mulberry silk production in India. Malda, Murshidabad and Birbhum are the major tradional districts of Sericulture in West Bengal.

Key words : Sericulture, Silk, India, West Bengal

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 7-18, 2008

EFFECT OF FEEDING OF DIFFERENT MATURITY LEVEL
OF MULBERRY LEAVES ON THE COMMERCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF Bombyx mori L. DURING DRY SUMMER IN WEST BENGAL

Kunal Sarkar*, Dilip Kumar Bhattacharya**, Susanta Kumar Chattopadhyay, Subrata Trivedi and Sudeshna Ghoshal 

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, K. N. College, Berhampore,
Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal, India

 

ABSTRACT

The study evaluated the effect of feeding of different maturity level of mulberry leaves, i.e., tender, medium, mix and mature leaves on the commercial characteristics of crossbreed (NNB4D2) during dry summer in West Bengal. The data obtained during the study was compared with those of control where conventional leaf feeding method was followed. Most of the larval and cocoon characters, viz., larval weight, effective rate of rearing, cocoon weight, shell weight and shell ratio percentage, etc., were recorded significantly higher in tender leaves fed batches followed by medium leaves fed batches. Significantly higher post cocoon parameters, viz., average filament length, nonbreakable filament length, renditta and raw silk recovery percentage, etc., were recorded in tender leaf fed batches. Qualitative analysis of leaves also suggested that tender leaves are more nutritious than other maturity level of leaves. Mature leaves fed batch showed inferior performance in terms of all the characters. The present experiment also revealed that 20% of tender leaves can be saved particularly in dry summer, which are generally clipped by sericultural farmers in West Bengal in late larval instar before providing mulberry shoots to silkworm larvae.  

Key words : Mulberry leaves, Maturity level, Cocoon characters, Reeling characters

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 19-26, 2008

EFFECT OF WATER TREATED Mulberry LEAVES ON THE COMMERCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF Bombyx mori L. DURING WET SUMMER IN WEST BENGAL

Kunal Sarkar*, Dilip Kumar Bhattacharya**, Susanta Kumar Chattopadhyay,
Subrata Trivedi, Sudeshna Ghoshal and Vinod B. Mathur***

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, K. N. College, Berhampore,
Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal, India

 

ABSTRACT

Present investigation indicates that feeding larvae with Mulberry leaves which were water dipped and dried for entire larval instar (T2) and in late larval instar (T4) gave better performance than control in respect of most of the larval and cocoon characters. But feeding larvae with leaves immediately water dipped for entire larval instar (T1) and in late larval instar (T3) showed inferior results in terms of all commercial characters in wet summer. This investigation suggests that leaves with high moisture content are not harmful for silkworm larvae at any season but water in the surface of leaves may be harmful for them. So it is important to feed silkworm larvae by just shaking the water from surface of the leaves or by drying the leaves for few minutes particularly during rainy season when the leaves are wetted due to rain. Investigation also reveals that if the wet leaves are dried for some time, it helps to increase the moisture percentage of leaves. Then it is also helpful to improve the cocoon characters.

Key words : Water treated mulberry leaves, Cocoon characters, Reeling characters

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 27-35, 2008

STUDIES ON MULTIPLE CROSSING OF SOME POPULAR CROSS BREEDS OF Bombyx mori L. IN WEST BENGAL

Subrata Trivedi*, Kunal Sarkar, Susanta Kumar Chattopadhyay, Gopinath Baur, Manmatha Mandal and Somdip Majumdar 

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, Krishnath College, Berhampore, Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal, India

 

ABSTRACT

Of all factors that govern productivity in sericulture, the role of silkworm egg is of prime importance. It is the sheet anchor of sericulture industry. Timely supply of appropriate quality and adequate quantity of disease free silkworm eggs to the sericulturists is crucial for successful harvest of cocoon crops. Silk moths have a tendency to pair immediately after emergence from cocoons. The present study indicates that in case of NM12W, NNB4D2 and NYB crossbreeds at least 95%-99% fertilized eggs  can be procured by using a single male moth for 4 times in crossing. So, if male moths are used 4 times during multiple crossing it would not affect the fertility of eggs. The present investigation also reveals that total fecundity almost remained same with control when male moths were even used for seven times in crossing. This suggests that that a single male moth can be used for four times by giving them sufficient rest in crossing with female moth and in this way a grainure can save considerable cost and hazards during the purchasing of seed cocoons of male components.

Key words : Bombyx mori, Multiple crossing, Silkworm eggs, Fecundity, Fertilized and unfertilized eggs

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 37-41, 2008

PERFORMENCE OF MULTIVOLTINE HYBRID NISTARI  M12 (W) AND CROSS BREED N NB4D2 OF Bombyx mori L. DURING FAVOURABLE AND UNFAVOURABLE SEASON IN WEST BENGAL

Kunal Sarkar*, Dilip Kumar Bhattacharya**, Susanta Kumar Chattopadhyay
and Subrata Trivedi

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, Krishnath College, Berhampore, Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

In West Bengal rearing season of Mulberry is divided mainly in two parts, i.e., favourable season (November to April) and unfavourable season (May to October). Mulberry crop span is 70 days. So five harvests as well as five rearings can be done in a year.  November crop (winter or Agrahani), February crop (spring or Falguni) and April crop (summer or Baishakhi) come under favourable season (dry summer) whereas June-July crop (rainy or Shrabani) and August-September crop (autumn or Aswina) come under unfavourable season (wet summer). A study was conducted from November, 2003 to November 2006 to evaluate the performance of multivoltine hybrid Nistari M12 (W) and cross breed Nistari NB4D2 of Bombyx mori during favourable and unfavourable seasons. The study revealed that during favourable season performance of cross breed Nistari NB4D2 is better but during unfavourable season Effective Rate of Rearing is very less and melting percentage is considerably higher in case of Nistari NB4D2 batch as compared to Nistari M12 (W) batch.

Key words : Nistari NB4D2, Nistari M12 (W), Rearing Season

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 43-47, 2008

AN OVERVIEW ON MAJOR MULBERRY SILKWORM RACES Bombyx mori L. OF INDIA AND
THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

Kunal Sarkar, Subrata Trivedi, Dilip Kumar Bhattacharya* and
Susanta Kumar Chattopadhyay

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, Krishnath College, Berhampore, Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

In India sericulture is mainly confined to its tropical belt. This country has a number of polyvoltine races which are in use for a long time and considered indigenous. Though these indigenous races are poor silk yielder but still these are very popular due to their tremendous ability to survive under extreme tropical conditions. Besides that, some bivoltine breeds are also evolved throughout the country due to some sincere efforts of our silkworm breeders. Here an effort is made to study the major silk worm races of our country.

Key words : Silkworm races, Multivoltine race, Bivoltine race

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 49-53, 2008

STUDY OF PUBESCENCE IN DIFFERENT MATUIRITY LEVEL OF LEAVES IN DIFFERENT MULBERRY VARIETIES

Subrata Trivedi*, Kunal Sarkar, Dilip Kumar Bhattacharya**
Susanta Kumar Chattopadhyay and Sudeshna Ghoshal 

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, K. N. College, Berhampore,

Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal, India

 

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted on number, length and  the pattern of pubescence in different maturity level of leaves in different improved mulberry varieties i.e., S1, S1635 and also in a local variety which are commonly cultivated in various parts of West Bengal. The study reveals that density of pubescence is more in tender leaves, but the pubescence in tender leaves is immature in stage. Tip of pubescence is blunt in case of tender leaves. Length of pubescence is increased and tip of pubescence is sharp and pointed in case of mature leaf. Length of pubescence is less in S1635 variety in all types of leaves as compared to that the local and S1 varieties. But in case of local variety pubescence is longest. Tip of pubescence is found more sharp in case of local variety and less sharp in case of S1635 variety. This result indicates that among these three varieties insects prefer to feed S1635 variety in terms of pubescence study. On the other hand, due to presence of immature and blunt type of pubescence, tender leaves are more favourable and palatable for silkworm larvae.

Key words : Pubescence, Maturity level of leaves, Mulberry varieties

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 55-60, 2008

A STUDY ON ADOPTION OF IMPROVED SERICULTURAL PRACTICES AT FARMERS LEVEL IN MAJOR TRADITIONAL DISTRICTS OF SERICULTURE IN WEST BENGAL

Kunal Sarkar*, S.K.Chattopadhyay, G. Baur and Subrata Trivedi

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, Krishnath College, Berhampore, Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

Sericulture is an age old industry in West Bengal. At present mulberry is cultivated in 33560 acres of land and 107000 families are engaged in mulberry sericulture. Estimated mulberry raw silk production during 2004-2005 was 1520 MT (10.39% of total mulberry raw silk production in India). But still a heavy decline in sericulture is seen in West Bengal. In 1997-1998 mulberry was cultivated in 53,395 acres (21358 ha) of land but it is now reduced to merely 33560 acres of land. There are several factors behind that downfall of sericulture in this state. Lack of adoption of improved sericultural practices may one of them. Hence, in the above context it is worthwhile to conduct research studies in two major traditional districts of West Bengal i.e., Malda and Murshidabad. The present study was conducted in the Nabagram Block of Murshidabad district and Kaliachawk Block-2 of Malda district to assess farmers' knowledge and their adoption level in respect of recommended sericulture practices so that field extension workers could develop appropriate educational approaches to upgrade their adoption level for increasing the cocoon yields, thus aiding in generation of higher income and employment among the rural mass. The findings of the present study indicated that only 50% of big farmers and 25% of small farmers had planted improved variety of Mulberry and followed recommended spacing and recommended system of planting. The present study also reveals that farmers have very low level of knowledge with respect to work spacing, number of feeds, types of leaves to be fed to different instars, leaves preservation methods, number of bed cleanings, temperature manipulation measures and prevention measures for various silkworm diseases. In general, irrespective of the category, sericultural farmers are not applying recommended dosage of fertilizers to mulberry crop.

Key words : Sericulture, Traditional district, Recommended practices

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 61-64, 2008

PACKAGE OF PRACTICES FOR MULBERRY CULTIVATION UNDER DIFFERENT AGROCLIMATIC CONDITIONs IN WEST BENGAL

Arindam Chakrabortty, Gopinath Baur, Sanat Roy, Sudeshna Ghoshal and
Alak Ranjan Goswami

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, K. N. College, Berhampore,
Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

A major factor determining the productivity and the profitability in sericulture is the yield of mulberry crop. Maximization of leaf yield of mulberry per unit area will lead to increase cocoon production at reduced cost. Thus, it should be the primary aim of the sericulturists to maximize leaf production. As a result of experimentation over a number of years on various aspects of mulberry cultivation, viz, variety, spacing, planting season, method of planting, irrigation, manuring, pruning, etc, a package of practices comprising all the factors was formulated and recommended to the field to maximize the leaf output. The “package of practices” differs with different agro-climatic conditions and topography of the area.

Key words : Mulberry, Irrigated land, Rainfed land

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 65-76, 2008

MANAGEMENT OF SILKWORM REARING
IN WEST BENGAL

Kunal Sarkar,* S. K. Chattopadhyay and Subrata Trivedi

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, K. N. College, Berhampore
Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

West Bengal experiences severe hot, humid summer and rainy season with higher precipitation rate, which makes the management of silkworm rearing very difficult. As a result, farmers of West Bengal fetch poor return owing to low productivity of cocoons. In this context it is important to manage silkworm rearing properly. In order to manage a profitable silkworm rearing it is indispensable to make proper planning prior to the initiation of silkworm rearing, management during the rearing of young age silkworms, late age silkworms and mounting and harvesting cocoons.

Key words : Silkworm rearing, Young age rearing, Late age rearing, Mounting, Harvesting

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 77-81, 2008

A STUDY ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC, HEALTH AND HYGIENE STATUS OF WOMEN ENGAGED IN SERICULTURE INDUSTRY IN SUJAPUR OF MALDA DISTRICT,
WEST BENGAL

S. K. Chattopadhyay*, K. Sarkar, R. Chattopadhyay, G. Baur, S. Trivedi and S. Roy

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, Krishnath College,
Berhampore, Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

Sericulture has been fully recognized as an important rural as well as household industry in India. It is a labour intensive, export oriented cottage industry, generating high employment and income per unit area of land. One hectare of mulberry land can generate employment to at least 13 persons per year. Women have played a significant role in this industry. Nearly 60% work of this industry is done by women only. In West Bengal, Malda is the biggest traditional district of sericulture. The present study was undertaken at Sujapur of Malda District as Sujapur is one of the main areas of Malda where sericulture is practiced in large scale. The main objective of the study was to examine status of women engaged in sericultural industry in terms of their educational level, income, nutrition, health and hygiene as nutrition and health are directly correlated with socio-economic status of a person and also affect the production of a farm. The present investigation indicates that 88% of women belonging to small farmers are illiterate. Even 8% of women belonging to big farmers are having education up to primary level. Maximum women of small farmers are found to come from the family income group of rupees 1501-3000 per month, while  women belonging to big farmers are from the family income group of rupees 3001-4500 per month. 72% of women belonging to small farmers and even 60% of women from big farmers are having body weight below normal. These findings are similar in case of blood pressure also. This study is a clear indication of alarming situation of sericultural women in major sericultural belt in West Bengal.

Key words : Sericulture, Women, Income, Education, Health

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 83-87, 2008

HEMOCYTIC CHANGES IN PREPUPAL STAGE OF SILKWORM, BOMBYX MORI L.

Sagnik Kumar Ganguly,* Arindam Chakraborty, Gopinath Baur, Sanat Roy,
Subrata Trivedi and Kunal Sarkar

Post Graduate Department of Serculture, Krishnath College,
Berhampore, West Bengal, India

 

ABSTRACT

Total Hemocyte Count in spinning silkworm, Bombyx mori L. was studied using four popular multivoltine races of India. Hemocytic concentration of larva was gradually decreased in every spinning day then again increased with pupal maturity. It was a common character for all the four races in the larva to pupa transition stage. Spherulocyte abundance and prohemocyte absence are other general features in the pre-pupal stage in  these four races. It is shown that spherulocytes are derived from granulocytes

Key words : Hemocyte, Pre-pupal stage, Bombyx mori

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 89-96, 2008

ROLE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA AND FOREIGN BODIES IN THE HEMOCYTE COUNT OF DIFFERENT RACES OF SILKWORM (BOMBYX MORI L.)

Sagnik Kumar Ganguly,* Arindam Chakraborty, Gopinath Baur, Susanta Kumar Chattopadhyay, Subrata Trivedi and Sudeshna Ghoshal

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, Krishnath College, Berhampore,
West Bengal, India

 

ABSTRACT

Comparative cellular immune responses between commercially exploited bivoltine and multivoltine races have been studied. Worms of different races are inoculated   with pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus vitulinus. Total Haemocyte Count (THC) at each post-inoculation period has been noted and compared with control groups. Bivoltines have more hemocytic concentration than that of any multivoltine races. A common behavior is observed for all races after inoculation of pathogen. The hemocyte population decreases in Ist hour, increases in 2nd hour and again decreases in 3rd hour. In second experiment, a multivoltine race, M12W was selected and was injected with saline having silica, indigo and carbon particles and with particle free saline (0.67% NaCl). But results similar to those of the first experiment were found indicating that pathogenicity is not the cause of first 3 hours, down-up-down sequence of THC in inoculated worms.

Key words : Total haemocyte count, Pathogen, Bivoltine and multivoltine silkworms

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 97-101, 2008

MAJOR MULBERRY DISEASES IN WEST BENGAL

  Subrata Trivedi, Gopinath Baur, Somdip Majumdar and Alak Ranjan Goswami

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, K. N. College, Berhampore,
Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

Mulberry is the host of the pathogens of different parasitic diseases. In West Bengal three fungal foliar diseases, viz., Powdery mildew, Leaf spot and Leaf rust, one fungal Root Rot, one bacterial Leaf blight and one nematode infected Root knot (in some restricted places of West Bengal) are common. They may cross economic threshold level every year and cause total 25-30% crop loss on an average. These diseases, their symptoms, causal organisms, occurrence and control measures have been discussed.

Key words : Mulberry, Diseases, West Bengal

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 103-106, 2008

IMPORTANT DISEASES OF SILKWORM IN WEST BENGAL

Susanta Kumar Chattopadhyay, Amalesh Choudhury* and Sanat Roy

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, K. N. College, Berhempore,
Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

 Common diseases of silkworms in West Bengal are White Muscardine (fungal), Grasserie (viral) and Flacherie (viral and bacterial complex) and Protozoan disease Pebrine. Only pebrine is transovarial; hence it is most dangerous. But this disease incidence is now reduced after establishment of seed organization and systematic mother moth examination. All the above diseases are lethal and infectious. Preventive measures should be taken during silkworm rearing to avoid these diseases. In the present communication symptoms, causal organisms, route of infection and control measures of thse disease are discussed.

Key words : Silkworm, Diseases, West Bengal

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(1) : 107-111, 2008

MAJOR SAP SUCKING PESTS OF MULBERRY
IN WEST BENGAL

Kunal Sarkar*, Gopinath Baur and Somdip Majumdar

Post Graduate Department of Sericulture, K. N. College, Berhampore,
Murshidabad-742101, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

             Mulberry plants are seriously damaged by various types of sap sucking insect pests in West Bengal. Most remarkable sapsuckers are mealy bug, white fly and thrips. Mealy bug sucks nutrient rich plant sap from tender top and injects toxic saliva to it causing serious morpho-physiological abnormality called ‘Tukra’. White fly is a major sap sucking minute polyphagous pest which seriously damages the crop by sucking the plant sap from leaves and young shoots and secretes honey dew to welcome other sooty moulds. Thrips, both nymphs and adults, tear the epidermal leaf tissues with their stylets and suck the plant sap causing low nutritive value of leaves.

             Key words : Insect pests, Tukra, Whitefly, Thrips.

           

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 113-117, 2008

A NEW SPECIES OF STILBULA SPINOLA (HYMENOPTERA : EUCHARITIDAE) FROM KARNATAKA, INDIA

P. Girish Kumar* and T.C. Narendran**

Zoological Survey of India, 'M'- Block, New Alipore, Kolkata, West Bengal-700 053

 

ABSTRACT

A new species of Stilbula Spinola, viz., S. bangalorica Girish Kumar and Narendran sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Karnataka, India. Affinities of the species with its closest relatives are discussed. A checklist of the species of Stilbula Spinola of Indian subcontinent is also provided.

Key words : Stilbula, new species, Eucharitidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 119-126, 2008

TWO NEW SEPTATE GREGARINES HIRMOCYSTIS PSYLLAE N. SP. AND STEININA Indica N. SP. From PSYLLA SP. (INSECTA : HEMIPTERA) FROM SUNDARBAN REGION OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

Sudip Mandal and Rupendu Ray*

Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Presidency College
86/1 College Street, Kolkata–700 073, India

 

ABSTRACT

Morphology and life history of two new septate gregarines (Apicomplexa : Conoidasida) Hirmocystis psyllae n. sp. and Steinina indica n. sp. from hemipteran insect host Psylla sp. from Sundarban region of West Bengal, India have been described.

Key words : Septate gregarine, Hirmocystis psyllae n. sp., Steinina idnica n. sp., Psylla sp., Sundarban Region

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 127-133, 2008

Avian Diversity of Lothian Island Wildlife Sanctuary, West Bengal

Soumyajit Chowdhury, Abesh Sanyal* and Arijit Chatterjee**

School of Oceanographic Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal

 

Abstract

Lothian Island Wildlife Sanctuary is a small island in the Hugli-Thakuran Estuary in the Gangetic Delta of West Bengal. As a part of Sundarban Biosphere Reserve, the sanctuary remains dominated by diverse mangroves and mangrove-associated plants. Faunal composition of this island also demands appreciation of which avian diversity came out to be fairly rich and was studied during the period, July - October, 2006.  Of the 67 bird species recorded, 49 were found as residents that breed locally and 18 as winter visitors. Birds recorded were further categorized into waterbirds (25 species), water-dependent birds (7 species) and forest-dwelling ones (35 species). Such diverse assemblage of birds in such a small island is primarily due to the availability of varied food matter in its undisturbed forestlands and mudflats. As an important staging ground for wintering waders, the area at present remains nearly free from anthropogenic stress.  A long-term survey of the entire island may possibly bring out further sightings and details of bird species residing and arriving there.

Key words : Lothian Island, Sundarban Biosphere reserve, Birds, Diversity, Residents, Winter visitors

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 135-140, 2008

EFFECTS OF SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATIONS OF ZINC ON BIOACCUMULATION AND ARCHITECTURAL ALTERATIONS

IN THE LIVER OF FISH Channa punctatus

Hemlata Verma* and Neera Srivastava

Fish Biology Laboratory, Center for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302004, INDIA

 

Abstract

Indiscriminate use of heavy metals has elevated the risk of contamination of the aquatic habitat. Present study has, therefore, been undertaken to investigate the alterations in bioaccumulation and histopathology of the liver in a freshwater teleost Channa punctatus. On exposure to three sublethal concentrations of zinc (10 mg/l, 15 mg/l and 25 mg/l) for 15 days, statistically significant increase in zinc concentration was noted in the liver of all treated groups. Simultaneously severe histopathological changes were also noted in the liver. Both bioaccumulation and histopathological changes were dose and duration dependent.

Key words : Zinc, Channa punctatus, Bioaccumulation, Histopathology

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 141-146, 2008

ON THE CRYOPRESERVATION OF SPERMATOZOA OF A FRESHWATER TABLE FISH, LABEO FIMBRIATUS (BLOCH)

Bindu L.

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata-700 053

 

ABSTRACT

An extender-cryoprotectant system is developed for the long-term storage of the spermatozoa of a common freshwater tablefish, Labeo fimbriatus which is an annual breeder. Five extenders and three cryoprotectants were used in the present study. The cryoprotectants were used in three different percentages, viz., 5%, 7.5% and 10%. The experiment was conducted for 90 days. The spermatozoa diluted in extender-V and cryopreserved with 7.5% DMSO gave best results.

Key words : Labeo fimbriatus, spermatozoa, motility, viability

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 147-150, 2008

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AMONG THE FAECAL bacterial ISOLATEs OF DAIRY, UNORGANIZED AND FREE RANGE CATTLE

Ramyani Chattopadhyay and Nishith Kumar Pal

Department Of Microbiology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata

ABSTRACT

A total of 132 bacterial isolates Escherichia coli obtained from faecal samples of organized dairy, unorganized khatal and free rang animals between May 2007- February 2008 were studied to generate data regarding the prevalence of ESbL (Extended-spectrum b-lactamase) and antibiotic resistant bacterial strains in above three sources. ESbL production was significantly (p<0.01) more prevalent among organized dairy cattle which indicates selection of resistant E. coli in organized dairy due to abuse of antibiotics.

Key words : ESbL, resistance, cattle

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 151-155, 2008

Detection of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospital environment

Ramyani Chattopadhyay and Nishith Kumar Pal

Department of Microbiology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata

 

Abstract

Since nosocomial outbreak of antibiotic resistant bacterial infection is a  biohazard., a study was done in 2007 to find out the incidence of extended spectrum b lactamase (ESbL) producer multidrug resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospital environment. 76 Escherichia coli and 45 Klebsiella pneumoniae obtained from variable sources of hospital environment of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine and Calcutta Medical College were tested in Bacteriology laboratory. Experiments related to antibiotic sensitivity, ESbL production, plasmid isolation and plasmid curing were done. Overall ESbL production was 48.684% in E. coli and 51.111% in K. pneumoniae. ESbL producer strains were most prevalent in the isolates obtained from health care workers. It is evident from plasmid curing that a single identical and plasmid of more or less 130 kb in size is responsible for the resistance pattern : Ceftazidime-Gentamicin-Norfloxacin-Trimethoprim in 61.666% ESbL producer isolates. This alarming prevalence of multidrug resistant ESbL producer strains in hospital environment highlights the need for rational use of antibiotics and implementation of better infection control programs in hospitals.

Key words : Multidrug registant, ESbL, Nosocomial, E. coli, K. pneumoniae

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 157-163, 2008

A SHORT TERM ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY OF AYROOR RIVER (KERALA) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ZOOPLANKTON DIVERSITY

C. Shaji, S. Suvidha and Bindu L.*

Department of Botany, Sree Narayana College, Kollam-691 001, Kerala

 

ABSTRACT

The study was carried out in Ayroor river (Kerala) to assess the water quality for a period of six months from December, 2006 to May, 2007. Physico-chemical parameters  of water and zooplankton diversity were estimated. High values of BOD (10.2–15.6 mg/l), COD (160–230 mg/l), TDS (200–1400 mg/l), free CO2 (22-88 mg/l), nitrate (1.65–13.99 mg/l) and MPN coliform (5000/100 ml) coupled with low dissolved oxygen content (2–4.2 mg/l), low diversity index (1.170–1.563) and presence of indicator species confirm high organic pollution in the river.

Key words : Water quality parameters, zooplankton diversity, Ayroor river

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 165-170, 2008

EFFECT OF MELATONIN ON THE FOLLICULAR DEVELOPMENT AND VITELLOGENESIS IN THE PREPUBERTAL PIGEON, COLUMBA LIVIA

V. D. Hegde

Zological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata-700 053

 

ABSTRACT

Effect of melatonin administration in the late photophase on the follicular development, vitellogenesis and atresia in the prepubertal pigeon was investigated. Birds were autopsied after the last injection and ovaries were dissected out and processed for histology. Follicles were separated using the spring scissor and classified based on their diameter, (i) < 75 m (ii) 76-300  m and (iii) > 300 m. In initial control birds, follicles < 75 m and < 300 m diameters were found while in final control and melatonin treated birds follicles of < 75 m, < 300 m and > 300 m were found. Significant increase in the number of follicles < 75 m diameter and atretic follicles were found in melatonin treated pigeons. Early vitellogenic follicles were absent in melatonin treated pigeons. The present study suggests that the treatment with melatonin in late photophase to prepubertal female pigeos affects the growth of the follicles and inhibits the formation of vitellogenic follicles.

Key words : Prepubertal, melatonin, photophase, follicles, Columba livia

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 171-180, 2008

EFFECT OF EXCESS FLUORIDE ON SPERMATOGENESIS OF RATS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO METAPHASE

K. Samanta, S. Trivedi,  R. Ganguly, S. Ghoshal* and T. Dutta

Postgraduate Department of Physiology, Krishnath College, Berhampore-742101

 

ABSTRACT

The reproductive toxicity of fluoride was studied in male rats. Male rats were exposed to sodium fluoride at a dose 2 mg NaF/100 g body weight per day for 30 days. A significant decrease in body weight and testicular weight was observed. There were 16.6% reduction in metaphase index, significant decrease in DNA content and reduction in diameter of seminiferous tubules of the testis. Zinc and copper content of testis remains unaltered in treated group compared to control group. Histological studies show fewer luminal spermatozoa in the testicular section of treated group.

Key words : Reproductive toxicity, metaphase index, fluoride toxicity, zinc

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 181-190, 2008

BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF ACRIDIDS AS POSSIBLE ANIMAL FEED SUPPLEMENT

Hena Anand, Sarasi Das, Arijit Ganguly and P. Haldar*

Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

Experiments were done to estimate biomass production by mass rearing of Oxya fuscovittata (Marschall) and Spathosternum prasiniferum prasiniferum (Walker) under laboratory condition, in order to utilize them as non conventional protein rich animal feed supplement. For this purpose fecundity, fertility, adult emergence, sex-ratio, fresh and dry body weight, protein and energy content in acridid tissue were determined. This study has shown that taking a single pair of male and female as starting point, O. fuscovittata may produce 225.07 kg dry biomass/year by mass rearing. Thus O. fuscovittata with high protein content and ability to produce high biomass can be utilized in animal feed as protein supplement through establishment of acridid farms.

Key words : Oxya fuscovittata, fecundity, energy content, protein content, acridid farming

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 191-214, 2008

CHECKLIST AND DISTRIBUTION OF BRACHYURAN CRABS OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

M. K. Dev Roy and N. C. Nandi

Zoological Survey of India, Crustacea Section, 27 Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Kolkata-700016

 

ABSTRACT

A taxonomic review of brachyuran crabs occurring in the state of West Bengal is furnished for the first time. A check-list of 150 species under 84 genera and 29 families is presented and the distribution of these species has been dealt with in this paper. In addition, a list of earlier recorded species considered to be 'threatened' in the state of West Bengal is also provided with pertinent discussion on these species.

Key words : Brachyuran crabs, distribution, checklist, ecosystem, West Bengal

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 215-219, 2008

Deer of the Zoological Garden, Kolkata,
India – a comparative study on their behaviour

K. Ganguly, D. Das*, A. K. Roy Mahato** and J. K. De**

Taki Government College, Taki, West Bengal

 

Abstract

The present study was carried out on some selected species of deer viz., Axis axis, Cervus eldii and Muntiacus muntjac at the Zoological Garden, Alipur, Kolkata. On analysis, it was found that the males of C. eldii remained more active throughout the day (56.87% time of day) compared to A. axis (53.14%) and M. muntjac (48.95%). Amongst females A. axis was found to be more active throughout the day (58.95%) in comparison to those of M. muntjac (41.95%) and C. eldii (55.25%). A significant inter-specific variation was noted in diurnal pattern of activities. After analysis, it was recorded that the A. axis and C. eldii were more active in morning and less active at noon, whereas M. muntjac was less active in morning and more active at noon. Result also showed that A. axis and C. eldii were less interactive with the visitors while M. muntjac interacted significantly.

Key words : Axis axis, Muntiacus muntjac, Cervus eldii, Behaviour, Deer, Captivity

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 221-226, 2008

Effect of Integrated Nutrient supply on growth, leaf yield and field performance of Mulberry  (Morus alba) under semi irrigated lateritic soil condition of West Midnapur district,
West Bengal

Barna Chakraborty, A. K Chandra* and  S. K. Chakraborty

Department of Zoology, Vidyasagar University, West Midnapur, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during 2004-06 to study the effect of organic manures along with bio-fertilizers and reduced doses of chemical fertilizers on growth and leaf yield of mulberry, belonging to the variety S1635 in lateritic soil condition with limited irrigation of West Midnapur areas having around pH 5.6. However plant height, number of tiller, leaf area, leaf yield, leaf moisture and total soluble protein were found high owing to application of different organic residues along with biofertilizers and reduced doses of chemical fertilizers. Among organic manures poultry litters along with biofertilizers with reduced dose of mineral fertilizers significantly increased leaf yield (11446.50 kg/ha/year) which is 5.76% over control. Application of organic manure like poultry litter on S1635 mulberry variety can reduce nitrogenous fertilizers (168 kg/ha/year) and 60% phosphatic fertilizers (60 kg/ha/year) over recommended dose (336 kg/ha/year, 180 kg/ha/year respectively) without any detrimental effect and could  save Rs. 2440.00 /ha/year by curtailing the cost of cultivation by 6.75%.

Key words : Mulberry, Vermicompost, Poultry manure  Azotobactor, Arbuscular, micorrhizal fungi

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 227-242, 2008

STUDIES ON THE MAJOR DIGESTIVE ENZYMES OF
A HERBIVOROUS FISH PUNTIUS JAVANICUS

R. Venkitesan

Zoological Survey of India, M Block New Alipore, Kolkata-700053

 

Abstract

An attempt has been made to characterise the distribution pattern of digestive enzymes present in the digestive tract of Puntius javanicus. Adapting suitable assay method the crude enzyme extracts obtained from all major part of the digestive tract were analysed for various carbohydrases, proteases, esterases and phosphatases. The results were analysed statistically for the significance between various enzymes as well as the regions. Detection of fairly high amount of carbohydrases in oesophagus endorse the view that the oesophagus may also have an important role in digestion. The specific activity units mean values were taken to find out the significance among the regions. It emerged that almost all the enzymes present in all the regions were highly significant except the leucine amino peptidase.

Key words : Puntius javanicus, assay method, alimentary canal, digestive enzymes, carbohydrases, proteases, esterases, phosphatases

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 243-250, 2008

STUDIES ON COPEPOD FAUNA AND ITS ABUNDANCE IN MUTTUKADU BACKWATER, TAMILNADU, INDIA

J. Chitra* and R. Ramanibai

Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025

 

ABSTRACT

Among zooplankton, copepod community in Muttukadu backwater was investigated in detail during February 2004 and May 2006. A total of 41 species of copepoda belonging to 22 genera under three suborders Calanoida (17), Cyclopoida (15) and Harpacticoida (09) along with nauplii and copepodites were recorded. In this paper, the monthly and seasonal abundance of copepod fauna is reported from four locations of Muttukadu backwater and total mean abundance was compared among those  locations. The seasonal data showed higher abundance during pre-monsoon season. The fluctuations in abundance of copepoda observed during the study were discussed in detail.

Key words : Copepoda, Muttukadu backwaters

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 251-258, 2008

ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS AND ACTION OF HEARING IMPAIRED STUDENTS and STUDENTs OF NORMAL HEARING CAPACITY : a comparative study

Mrinal Mukherjee

Dept. of Education, Calcutta University, Kolkata

 

ABSTRACT

Ecology as a science has become suddenly enjoying highest importance in recent years because of the fast deteriorating quality of environment and frequent episodes of ecological backlash and boomerangs. Technology and ecology almost parted away. The success of all strategies and efforts to protect the environment exclusively depends upon how we can inculcate the Environment protective behaviour among the students who are the future architects of our nation. It is therefore very important to assess the level of Environmental Awareness and Environmental Action of the school students. It is very important to note here that the nation cannot afford to miss the inclusion of more than 21.91 million differentially able persons of our country in the mission of Environment protection war. Here an effort has been made to compare the level of Environmental Awareness and Environmental Action of Hearing Impaired students with the students of Normal Hearing Capacity.

Key words : Environmental Awareness, Environmental Action, Normal Hearing Capacity (NHC), Hearing Impaired (HI)

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 5(2) : 259-274, 2008

MICRO-CREDIT : A WEST BENGAL PERSPECTIVE

Debarchana Bhattacharya, Probal Mojumder1, Samrat Sanyal2 and Sujana Kabiraj3

Bidhannagar College, EB-2, Saltlake, Sector 1, Kolkata-700064

 

ABSTRACT

Micro-finance as a concept emerged when social innovators began to offer financial services to the working poor – those who were previously considered "un-bankable" because of their lack of collateral. Once given the opportunity, not only did the clients expand their business and increase their incomes, but also their high repayment rates demonstrated that the poor are capable of transforming their own lives given the chance. The most common micro-finance product is a micro-credit loan. In the process the poor gets a secured place to save their money, earn social security and leadership qualities and realise the need of education. Micro-credit loans empower the poor to improve their own lives. By giving the world's poor a hand up, not a handout, micro-finance can help break the vicious cycle of poverty in as little as a single generation.

Key words :                Micro-finance, micro-credit loans, poverty alleviation, social empowerment

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J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 1-5, 2009

CHROMOSOMAL ANALYSIS OF SELECTED FRESHWATER ORNAMENTAL FISHES

K. K. Adak and T. S. Nagesh

Department of Fishery Biology and Resources Management,
Faculty of Fishery Sciences, West Bengal University of Animal and
Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700 094, West Bengal

Abstract

Chromosomal analysis of six freshwater ornamental fishes, Red tail shark minnow (Epalzeorhynchos bicolor), Tiger loach/Zebra loach (Botia striata), Red fin shark (Epalzeorhynchos munense), Silver shark (Balantiocheilos melanopterus), Albino rainbow shark (Epalzeorhynchos frenatus) and Rani loach (Botia lohachata) collected from natural water body or ornamental fish hatcheries located in Howrah, Hooghly and South 24 Parganas of West Bengal, India was carried out. The diploid chromosome number (2n) of Red tail shark minnow, Tiger loach/Zebra loach, Red fin shark, Silver shark, Albino rainbow shark and Rani loach were found to be 50, 50, 40, 50, 46 and 78 respectively.

Key words : Chromosome analysis, Freshwater, Ornamental fish

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 7-11, 2009

STUDIES ON INDIGENOUS ORNAMENTAL FISH SPECIES WITH REFERENCE TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN SOME DISTRICTS OF WEST BENGAL

A. K. Panigrahi, P. K. Bandyopadhyay and Sarbani Dutta (Roy)

Fisheries and Aquaculture Extension Laboratory

Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani,

Kalyani-741235, Nadia, West Bengal, India

ABSTRACT

West Bengal contains richest source of freshwater indigenous fishes having tremendous potential as ornamental fishes. Some of the indigenous ornamental fishes are Notopterus notopterus, Notopterus chitala, Ompok pabda, Danio devario, Brachydanio rerio, Mystus spp., Puntius spp., Chanda spp., Colisa spp., Pangasius sutchi, Glossogobius giuris, Nandus nandus, Heteropneustes fossilis, Anabus testudineus, Channa punctutus, Mastacembalus armatus, Rasbora rasbora, Chacca chacca, etc. Our survey in some districts of West Bengal revealed that these ornamental fishes are under threat due to indiscriminate introduction of exotic fishes, application of toxicants and pesticides and eradication of these potential fishes as weed fishes during composite fish culture or polyculture. But the fact is that huge demand remains in the international market for these fishes. This paper as an attempt to reveal that there is a great opportunity in entrepreneurship development among the unemployed person with more sustainable exploitation of the above indigenous fishes.   

Key words : Indigenous, Aquatic biodiversity, Entrepreneurship development

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 13-20, 2009

Bioaccumulatiion and elimination of endosulfan in muscle, gills and blood of channa punctatus

Garima Harit* and Neera Srivastava

Department of Zoology, Centre for Advanced Studies,

University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302 004, India

ABSTRACT

After exposure of Channa punctatus to sub-lethal concentrations of endosulfan for 120 hrs, residues of endosulfan were estimated quantitatively in muscle, gills and blood. Maximum accumulation of endosulfan was observed in the gills. Treated fishes were subsequently transferred to endosulfan free freshwater for another 120 hrs in order to study the recovery response of these fishes. During recovery phase, slow and steady elimination of endosulfan residue was observed in both treated groups, showing non-significant removal in muscle and highly significant removal in gills and blood. Results reveal that muscle, gills and blood of C. punctatus have the ability to bioaccumulate endosulfan even at low concentrations and short exposure. This may in turn lead to various degenerative processes which will influence physiology and nutritive value of the fish.

Key words : Bioaccumulation, Endosulfan, Recovery, Channa punctatus

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 21-27, 2009

cryopreservation of spermatozoa
in fisheries sector

Bindu. L.

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata-700 053

E-mail : bindlajapathi@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Importance of cryopreservation in aquaculture is a widely accepted fact. It is an important component of genetic conservation programmes for fish and is an alternative method of preserving endangered stock at low temperature. Spermatozoa may be preserved for short-term or long-term. Semen is usually preserved in extended media at lower temperatures. An ideal extender for semen should contain cryoprotective materials to minimize cellular damage during freezing and thawing by reducing the thermal shock.

Key words :                 Spermatozoa, fish, cryopreservation, extenders, cryoprotectants

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 29-34, 2009

Two new species of CERATOMYXA Thelohan 1892 (Myxosporea : Ceratomyxidae) from the gallbladder of some catfishes of the Bay of Bengal off West Bengal coast, India

Nirmal Kumar Sarkar*

Department of Zoology, R. B. C. College, Naihati 743165, West Bengal, India

ABSTRACT

Ceratomyxa macrovalvula sp.n. and Ceratomyxa cylindrobiconica sp. n. (Myxosporea : Ceratomyxidae) have been described from the gallbladder of Arius sagor and A. sona  respectively (Ariidae) collected from the Bay of Bengal off West Bengal coast,
India. These two Ceratomyxa spp. have been compared with their related Ceratomyxa species.

Key words :                Ceratomyxa, gallbladder, Catfishes, Bay of Bengal, West Bengal coast

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 35-38, 2009

Association of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in freshwater fishes of Kolkata market

T. Jawahar Abraham*

Department of Fishery Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Fishery Sciences,

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences,

Chakgaria, Kolkata–700 094, West Bengal, India

ABSTRACT

Association of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with market freshwater fish samples in and around Kolkata and their mutagenicity to chloramphenicol was investigated. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated in 14% of freshwater fish samples possibly because of cross-contamination due to mishandling of freshwater fishes along with brackishwater and/or marine fishes. The mutation frequency of oxytetracycline resistant V. parahaemolyticus strains was found to be high (1.13 10-9 – 1.00 10-9) compared to that of the strains susceptible to antibiotics (3.16 10-10 – 2.39 10-10), which is a cause of concern from public health point of view.

Key words :                Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Freshwater fish, Cross-contamination, Mutation frequency

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 39-43, 2009

Shell disease in freshwater river prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (H. Milne Edwards) due to induced infection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophilla

S. Behera and G. N. Patel*

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences,

Chakgaria campus, West Bengal, Kolkata -700 094

Abstract

The present study was conducted for 50 days in the laboratory to assess the typical signs and symptoms of a particular pathogen Aeromonas hydrophilla in a river prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. In this study, bacterium Aeromonas hydrophilla was inoculated to the water medium of the prawn juveniles through immersion method. The juveniles of M. malcolmsonii exhibited the signs and symptoms of shell disease, such as, erratic movement, lethargic in swimming, of feeding, no molting, black spots on the sclerites and necrosed uropods. The bacterium Aeromonas hydrophilla was reisolated from infected juveniles and tested biochemically to confirm one of the causative agent of shell disease.

Key words : Chitinolytic, Inoculation, Juveniles, Sclerites, Melanization

 

                J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 45-52, 2009

ARGULOSIS IN CARPS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN LOW SALINE BHERIES OF WEST BENGAL

G. Dash, S. K. Parida, S. K. Sasmal* and S. N. Sahoo

Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Fishery Pathology and Microbiology,

Faculty of Fishery Sciences, W.B.U.A.F.S, Kolkata-700 094, West Bengal

Abstract

Hydrological parameters like dissolve oxygen, pH, turbidity, temperature, alkalinity, free carbon dioxide and salinity which have their direct influence upon the fish health with reference to the occurrence of argulosis in Indian major carps were studied in low saline bheries of West Bengal from March, 2006 to February, 2007. The high organic load which caused the over production of plankton leading to depletion of dissolve oxygen, increasing carbon dioxide to lethal level, high rate of ammonification leading to low alkalinity and fluctuation in temperature aggravates the occurrence of parasitic infection. Most of the parameters were found to be significant at 5% level and few were significant at 1% level. It was found that the above variables had definite impact individually or in combination on the prevalences of argulosis. Out of all the water parameters, temperature, alkalinity, dissolve oxygen and salinity were found to be the deciding factors for incidence of argulosis in low saline bheries of different locations of West Bengal. The prevalence of Argulus was less in October-November and it became epidemic in February-March and gradually declined in April.

Key words : Argulosis, Indian major carps, water quality, low saline bheries

 

            J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 53-58, 2009

IMPACT OF SELECTED FEEDS ON NUTRITIONAL CHARECTERISTICS OF FLESH IN CARP LABEO BATA  (HAMILTON)

Anjana and S. K. Das

Dept. of Fishery Biology and Resources Management, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Chakgaria, P.O. Panchasayer, PIN-700 094, West Bengal

ABSTRACT

Nutritional characteristics of fish flesh, such as, proximate composition and organoleptic characteristics of fish grown in Eichhornia and Colocasia leaf powder diets as well as fishmeal based control diet were evaluated after 8 weeks of laboratory experiment. Significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in crude protein and crude fat levels in fish flesh. Moisture and lipid level were inversely related. Organoleptic evaluation indicated significant difference (P < 0.05) in overall quality of flesh in raw fish in different treatments whereas it was not significant in cooked fish. There was no significant difference in overall quality of fish flesh in treatments having 20% and 30% level of incorporation of leaf powder in pellet feed.

Key words :                Proximate composition, organoleptic characteristics, fish, formulated feed

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 59-65, 2009

STUDIES ON SELECTIVITY OF PENAEIDS IN TWO-SEAM OVER HANG TRAWL WITH AND WITHOUT SQUARE
MESH PANELS IN COD END AND FORWARD
PART OF UPPER BELLY

N. A. Talwar* and B. Hanumanthappa

College of Fisheries (KVAFSU), Mangalore–575 002, Karnataka state, India

ABSTRACT

Studies on selectivity of penaeids were carried out by comparing the catches of the conventional two-seam overhang trawl with that of experimental two-seam overhang trawl having square mesh panels of 45 mm mesh size in the forward part of upper belly and 28 mm mesh size in the cod end. Alternate trawling technique was used by maintaining similarity in towing direction, towing duration, speed and depth of operation to minimize possible errors between the trawls. The results revealed that the experimental trawl caught less quantity of juvenile penaeids than that of conventional trawl having diamond mesh webbing in the body and the cod end. The by-catch was also reduced considerably indicating that the new gear would be helpful for the better management of penaeids resources.

Key words : Selectivity, shrimps, trawls, diamond mesh and square mesh

 

 

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 67-71, 2009

Composition, DIVERSITY, Distribution AND Seasonal

Changes OF Fish JuvenileS IN Hooghly Estuary off Sagar Island, Sundarbans, West Bengal

S. K. Sasmal, A. Choudhury and G. Dash*

S. D. Marine Biological Research Institute, Bamankhali, Sagar Island,
24
Parganas (S), West Bengal, India

ABSTRACT

The fish juveniles surveys were conducted in Hooghly estuary near Sagar Island in Indian Sundarban in 2008 to study their composition, diversity, distribution and seasonal occurrence. A total of 65 species belonging to 27 genera under 20 families were identified from two stations of Hooghly estuary at Sagar Island, viz., Baguakhali and Chemaguri. Of the 20 families, Engraulidae represented highest diversity of 12 species, followed by Mugilidae (8 species), Chipeidae (7 species) and Gobiidae (6 species). The diversity of species was minimum during post-monsoon and maximum in pre-monsoon periods. The most doninant families were Engraulidae, Mugilidae, Culpeidae, Gobidae and Cynoglossidae. The composition and diversity fish juveniles in the Baguakhali was higher than that of Chemaguri in all seasons. 

Key words :            Fish juveniles, composition, distribution, Hooghly estuary, Sundarbans

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 73-77, 2009

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM AND GONADAL DEVELOPMENT OF ANABAS TESTUDINEUS, REARED IN CAPTIVE CONDITION

S. Behera, S. Ahamad and Md. I. Khan

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences,

Chakgaria campus, West Bengal, Kolkata–700 094

ABSTRACT

Sexual dimorphism and gonad cycle of Anabas testudineus reared in captive condition (from January to December 2005) was ascertained based on their external morphological characters, such as, colour of body, black spots seen at the base of the caudal fin, bulgingness of belly and modification of vent as well as development of gonadal materials indicating change in gonad size. In captive condition, both the sexes (male and female) of Anabas exhibited change in sexual characters morphologically particularly during breeding season (June to September). These characters became more prominent during peak breeding season (July and August). Based on modification of colour on the body surface male could not be differentiated from the female during this period. But, it could differentiate mature fishes from immature one in breeding season. Remaining three characters (black spots seen at the base of the caudal fin, bulgingness of belly and modification of vent) are found very much useful for the identification of male and female fish during breeding season. The gonad increased its size (length, weight and volume) during onset of breeding season (June to September), reached to its optimum level on peak breeding season (July and August) and became spent after October.

Key words : Breeding, Gonadal cycle, Maturation, Peak breeding season.

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 79-85, 2009

OBSERVATIONS ON GENERAL BEHAVIOUR OF
AN ANABANTID FISH, COLISA FASCIATA

Tapan Kr. Mandal, Mojammel Hoque and J. Pal.*

Dept. of Zoology, Malda College, Malda (West Bengal)

ABSTRACT

The anabantid fishes (modern bony fishes) are vegetable and animal feeder. They have excellent capacity to adapt in various types of habitat like freshwater, slightly brackish water and even polluted water where the DO2  is of least amount. They can also survive in aquarium conditions very smoothly and feel natural environment in it. In the present study, considerable efforts have been given to observe the general bahaviour of an anabantid fish Colisa fasciata. The general bahaviour pattern of
C. fascaita consisted of various motor pattern, e.g., swimming, hovering floating,
fin–flickering, flexing, chaffing, snapping of mouth, air gulping, bubble blowing, resting, fright and feeding behaviour.

Key words : Ethology, general behaviour, anabantid fish, Colisa fasciata

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 87-91, 2009

IN PURSUIT OF DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVITY IN STUDENTS OF DISCIPLINE OF FISHERY SCIENCE

S. Paltasingh and S. K. Das*

Syamaprasad Institute of Education & Training,
5/B. R. Dasgupta Road, Kolkata-700 026

ABSTRACT

Fisheries sector plays an important role in agrarian economy and nutritional security of India. There exists ample opportunity to enhance fish production adopting different scientific approaches. Development of  knowledge and skill of fishery professionals is the key to meet the demand in national and international level. It can be well addressed by developing creativity amongest under graduate students in discipline of Fishery Science. Meta learning and conducive environment induce creativity. Important components of creativity are person, process, product and press (environment). Its assessment procedures and five levels in scientific model of creativity are discussed. Need of development of creativity in students in discipline of Fishery Science in present day context is narrated.

Key words : Meta learning, levels of creativity

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 93-97, 2009

Empowering Women for Sustainable Beel Fisheries in Assam

R. C. Barman, S. S. Dana and N. A. Talwar*

Dept. of Fishery Extension, W.B.U.A.F.S., Chakgaria, Panchasayar, Kolkata-700 094

ABSTRACT

For evaluating sustainable development in today’s scenario, empowerment of target community is imperative just to take their own decision and to know the pattern of equitable distribution of benefit derived from any development programme like fisheries or aquaculture in order to achieve a quality life. The findings of the study revealed that woman empowerment was positively and significantly associated with the knowledge level of beel users at 1% level of probability. So it can be said that empowerment helps one to improve his or her living standard. Hence empowering the women to take decision on different fisheries and aquaculture activities is regarded as one of the most important inputs for sustainable development of beel fisheries.

Key words :                Sustainable development, floodplain wetlands, beel fisheries, women empowerment

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(1) : 99-103, 2009

Participation of Women in Fishery Management Practices in Dakshin Dinajpur District of West Bengal, India

B. Goswami, S. S. Dana* and N. A. Talwar**

Dakshin Dinajpur Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidylaya,
West Bengal, India

ABSTRACT

Investigations were carried out to study the women engaged in different fishery management practices and to identify independent variables, which are related with the dependent variables, viz., decision making and supervision of women in fish culture in Dakshin Dinajpur district of West Bengal. Randomly selected 120 fisherwomen revealed that majority of them participate in different management practices like application of mohua oil cake (70%), liming (87.5%), application of organic manure (89.16%), and application of inorganic fertilizers (62.5%) and regular netting operation (82.5%). The findings revealed that out of twelve variables only six variables, namely, age, area of the ponds, education, family educational status, economic status and aspiration  were significantly correlated with decision making process of women in fish culture The findings also revealed that out of twelve variables only three variables, namely, age, economic status and aspiration were significant at 0.01 level of probability.

Key words : Women, Aquaculture, Fishery management

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 105-118, 2009

STUDIES ON LEAF EPIDERMAL MICROMORPHOLOGY, WOOD ELEMENT CHARACTERS AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF THREE MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT TAXA OF THE FAMILY CONVOLVULACEAE

Sutapa Choudhury, Chowdhury Habibur Rahaman and Sudhendu Mandal*

Department of Botany, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731235

 

ABSTRACT

The present paper deals with leaf epidermal micromorphology, wood element characters and phytochemical screening of three medicinally important plants of Convolvulaceae, viz., Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L., Evolvulus nummularius (L.) L. and Ipomoea cairica ( L.) Sweet. The epidermal cells are found to be irregular in shape and the outlines of the cells are wavy in every species. Stomata are amphistomatic and mainly of paracytic type (except in Evolvulus nummularius). Trichomes are glandular and nonglandular, unicellular or multicellular, straight or curved. The range of the stomatal index varies from 11.40 to 20.00. Palisade ratio ranges from 6.2 to 9.8. The vessel element length ranges from 60.71 m to 357.10 m and the diameter varies from 21.78 m to 66.06 m. Perforation plate is simple and transverse or obliquely placed. Fibres are typical libriform, very long and diameter ranges from 10.71 mm to 16.78 mm. In every cases, tracheids are long with spiral to condensed spiral type of sidewall thickening and diameter is from 07.14 mm to 16.07mm. The active compounds are identified by the chemical colour reaction tests belonging to the phytochemical groups of amino acids, alkaloids, reducing sugars, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and triterpenoids, tannins, etc.

Key words :         Foliar epidermal micromorphology, xylem elements, fibres, phytochemicals, Evolvulus alsinoides, Evolvulus nummularius, Ipomoea cairica

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 119-122, 2009

Pluteus cervinus (Schaeff.) P. Kumm. : An Addition to the Macrofungi of West Bengal, India

Krishnendu Acharya*, Prakash Pradhan and Bhujaya Bhoumik

Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata-700019

 

ABSTRACT

Vastness of flora and diversity of habit, habitat and topography have made West Bengal a paradise for wide varieties of macrofungi. Pluteus cervinus, an agaricales was collected from Birati and reported first time from West Bengal. A detailed macro and microscopic features of this macrofungus species were presented in this paper.

Key words : Pluteus cervinus, new record    

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 123-130, 2009

THREE NEW SPECIES OF PTEROMALIDAE (HYMENOPTERA : CHALCIDOIDEA) FROM SUNDERBANS,
WEST BENGAL, INDIA

T. C. Narendran and P. Girish Kumar*

Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Department of zoology,

University of Calicut, Kerala-673 635, India. E-mail : drtcnarendran@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT

Three new species of Pteromalidae, viz., Panstenon bengalense Narendran and Girish Kumar sp. nov., Psilocera neoclavicornis Narendran and Girish Kumar sp. nov. and Pteromalus sunderbanicus Narendran and Girish Kumar sp. nov. are described. Characters separating closely resembling species are provided.

Key words : Pteromalidae, Panstenon, Psilocera, Pteromalus, new species, India

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 131-135, 2009

A NEW SEPTATE GREGARINE NEOHIRMOCYSTIS TROGODERMAE N. SP. FROM TROGODERMA GRANARIUM (INSECTA : COLEOPTERA) FROM SUNDARBAN REGION OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

Sudip Mandal and Rupendu Ray*

Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Presidency College
86/1 College Street, Kolkata–700 073, West Bengal, India.

 

ABSTRACT

Morphology and life history of one new septate gregarine (Apicomplexa : Conoidasida) Neohirmocystis trogodermae n. sp. from the coleopteran insect pest, Trogoderma granarium collected from Sundarban region of West Bengal, India has been described.

Key words :         Septate gregarine, Neohirmocystis trogodermae n. sp., Trogoderma granarium, Sundarban region

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 137-143, 2009

A Comparative Study on the Prevalence of Myxozoan (Myxozoa : Myxosporea : Bivalvulida) and Trichodinid (Ciliophora : Mobilina : Trichodinidae) Fish Parasites in Pure and Hybrid Carps of Jhalda, Purulia, West Bengal

Saugata Basu, Biplob Kr. Modak*,  and Durga P. Haldar**

Department of Biology, Uttarpara Govt. High School,

P.O. Uttarpara, Dist Hooghly, PIN 712 258, West Bengal, India

Email : basusaugata@fastmail.fm, saugatatias@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

The paper records the prevalence of two major groups of protozoan fish parasites, viz., myxozoans (Myxozoa : Myxosporea : Bivalvulida) and trichodinids (Ciliophora : Mobilina : Trichodinidae) in pure and hybrid carps reared in three pisciculture ponds at Jhalda in Purulia, West Bengal. It has been revealed that infection rate was remarkably higher in hybrid carps. Monthly prevalence of these parasites obtained during the study period along with month-wise analysis of physical and chemical environmental parameters of pond water have also been incorporated.

Key words : Pure and hybrid carps, Myxosporeans, Trichodinids, Prevalence, Purulia, West Bengal

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 145-150, 2009

Impact of chronic zinc exposure on biochemical composition of the ovary in Channa punctatus (Bloch)

Hemlata Verma and Neera Srivastava

Fish Biology Laboratory, Centre for Advanced Studies,

Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004, India

E-mail : hemlata1980verma@gmail.com

 

Abstract

Biochemical response has been evaluated in the ovary of Channa punctatus (Bloch) after 135-day exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 mg/1) of zinc. Changes in glycogen, cholesterol, total proteins and total lipids were estimated. All these parameters showed significant depletion. Results are directly proportional to dose and duration of the experiment. Results indicate that exposure to zinc for prolonged periods may also reduce fecundity of fish, thereby limiting the numerical size of the succeeding generations.

Key words : Channa punctatus, Zinc, Ovary, Biochemistry

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 151-158, 2009

BIOACCUMULATION PATTERN OF HEAVY METALS IN FISH JUVENILES OF INDIAN SUNDARBANS

A. Mitra, N. Mukherjee, H. K. Jana*, D. Bandyopadhyay,  P. Goswami and K. Banerjee

Department of Marine Science, Calcutta University, 35. B.C. Road, Kolkata–700 019

 

ABSTRACT

Coastal environment of West Bengal, recognized as the most diversified and productive ecosystem among all the maritime states of India, faces pollution from domestic sewage and urban and industrial effluents leading to serious impacts on biota. These organic and inorganic wastes containing heavy metals mainly originate from the city of Kolkata, Howrah and the newly developing Haldia port-cum-industrial complex. Most abundant heavy metals in the estuarine complex are Zn, Cu and Pb. The present paper aims to highlight the level of these heavy metals in juveniles of ten commercially important species of finfish collected from the aquatic subsystem of western Indian Sundarbans, a Gangetic delta in the north-east coast of the Indian sub-continent. The heavy metals accumulated in the juvenile fish muscles in the order Zn > Cu > Pb. Significant temporal variations of Zn and Cu level in the fish muscles were observed between years, but in case of Pb such variation was not observed. The accumulation of heavy metals in the selected fish muscles exhibited significant species specificity as revealed from the ANOVA results.

Key words : Estuary, accumulation of heavy metals; fish juveniles

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 159-166, 2009

Evaluation of haematological parameters and endosulfan accumulation in blood of Channa punctatus followed by subsequent recovery

Garima Harit and Neera Srivastava

Department of Zoology, Centre for Advanced Studies,
University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302 004, India

haritgarima@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract

Present study has been undertaken to investigate alterations in some haematological parameters along with endosulfan accumulation in blood of Channa punctatus after sub-chronic exposure to endosulfan. A statistically significant decline is observed in RBC, Hct, Hb and MCHC content in all the treated groups, reflecting an anaemic condition of the fish. Results indicate significant elevation in WBC, MCV, MCH, blood glucose and endosulfan content in blood, indicating a stress condition. Post exposure recovery was noted on depuration for another fortnight. Mild recovery was noted in haematological parameters and blood glucose along with slow elimination of endosulfan.

Key words : Accumulation, Haematology, Channa punctatus, Endosulfan, Recovery. 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 167-174, 2009

Salinity, pH and Species Diversity of Ichthyoplankton in Hooghly Estuary,
West Bengal, India

S. K. Sasmal, A. Choudhury, and G. Dash*

S. D. Marine Biological Research Institute, Bamankhali, Sagar Island,

24-Pgs (S), West Bengal, India

 

ABSTRACT

Investigation on some limnological factors like salinity and pH as well as species diversity of ichthyoplankton at three different  sampling stations, viz., Light house (Station-1), Kachuberia (Station-2) and Haldia (Station-3) in the Hooghly estuarine complex of West Bengal was carried out. Samples of ichthyoplankton and water were collected every month during 2008. Station-1 recorded higher values of salinity, pH and species diversity compared to those of Station-2 and Station-3. The salinity and pH played an important role for survival of ichthyoplankton in the estuarine environment. Species diversity of ichthyoplankton also varied among the sampling stations. In all the stations maximum number of ichthyoplankton was available during pre-monsson (March to June) and minimum during monsoon (July to October). The species diversity gradually declined from the mouth towards the upper stretches of the estuary with the decrease in the salinity and pH of water.

Key words : Estuary, salinity, pH, ichthyoplankton, diversity

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 175-194, 2009

FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS OF LENTIC AND LOTIC ECOSYSTEMS IN WEST BENGAL

M. K. Dev Roy and N. C. Nandi

Zoological Survey of India, Crustacea Section,

27, Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Kolkata – 700016

 

ABSTRACT

An inventory of freshwater crustaceans from the state of West Bengal is attempted for the first time. A total of 185 species belonging to 95 genera and 29 families have been recorded from lentic and lotic ecosystems of the state. Habitat-wise as well as district-wise distribution of those species has been presented. Threats to crustacean diversity have also been briefly discussed.

Key words : Lentic and lotic ecosystems, crustacean diversity, threat

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 195-204, 2009

Discovery of a population of a virtually unknown large freshwater bivalve Parreysia rajahensis (Lea, 1841) (Unionoidea : Amblemidae) in the river Subernarekha, India

Gopal Sharma, Hasko Nesemann* and Subodh Sharma*

Zoological Survey of India, Gangetic Plains Regional Station
Rajendra Nagar, Patna-800 016, Bihar

 

Abstract

Living populations of a large freshwater bivalve. Parreysia rajahensis (Lea, 1841) were found for the first time in the river Subernarekha. This bivalve species was found to occur in six localities of that river in altitudes ranging from 11 m to 196 m above mean sea level. In the middle reach of the river at Moori, Lupungdih and Maubhandar only empty shells of this bivalve species were available. Whereas, living populations of this bivalve were observed in the lower reach of the river at Gopiballabhpur and Jaleshwar. In addition, one living specimen of P. rajahensis was found in Kharkai confluence at Domuhani. Water qualities of the sampling sites were measured and relative abundance of this bivalve species along with its associate benthic molluscs was also estimated.

Key words  :        Bivalve, Perreysia rajahensis, Subernarekha river, population, water quality, abundance

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 205-212, 2009

Perspective on the socio-economic status of the fishermen engaged in fishing in the coastal belt of Purba Medinipur district of
West Bengal
, India

Mrinmay Ghorai, Utpal Kr. Sar*, Ritish Das and Bidhan C. Patra

Aquaculture Research Unit, Department of Zoology, Vidyasagar University,

Midnapore-721102,West Bengal, India., e.mail : bcpatra@yahoo.com

 

Abstract 

A study was carried out to assess the socio-economic status of the fishermen engaged in fishing in the Ramnagar-II development block of Purba Medinipur district of West Bengal. The study deals with the migrant people of the traditional landing centres, use of crafts and gears and their type, frequencies of various species of fish and their percentage of landing, income level, education, etc. Certain remedial measures to be taken to elevate the socio-economic condition of the fisher folk have also been pointed out.

 Key words : Fisher folk, landing centre, migrant people, socio-economic status

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 213-222, 2009

CAREER CHOICE AMONG THE STUDENTS OF HIGHER SECONDARY LEVEL IN KOLKATA, WEST BENGAL

S. Pal and D. Banerjee*

Dept. of Life Science, Govt. Training College, Hooghly

E-mail : spalaug@rediffmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

Present work deals with the estimation of major factors that influence the career choice among the students of Higher Secondary level in Kolkata and suggests that the process of career choice among the students of H.S level involves the academic achievement, sex-bias, family imposition, self-interest, parent’s educational level, etc.

Key words :         Career choice, Academic career, Sex-bias, Professional aim, Socio-economic status, Counsellor.

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 223-231, 2009

THE LAW OF KARMA AND CONFLICT–STRESS RELATIONSHIP : TOWARDS THE DEFINITION OF DHARMIC WORK-ENVIRONMENT

Debashis Kumar Basu

Finance (Rev.) Department, Govt. of West Bengal, Kolkata–700001

Email : D.Bose30@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

Conflict management styles have been made related to the quality of agreement reached during negotiations or a particular situation. By contrast, in this article it is argued that it is the conflict style that creates a particular situation within a work environment and that “created situation” induces an actor (of the work environment) to adopt a particular style to cope with the crisis and thus the cycle continues. By applying the knowledge of karmic principles, it is understood that the preference of a particular style is determined by the locus of the actor into his /her karmic cycle, i.e., whether he/she is about to complete the cycle or not. Using data from a leading corporate sector of India, it is found that those who prefer a more integrating style (i.e., good karma) experience a lower level of role conflict which reduces stress and those who use a more dominating or avoiding style (i.e, bad karma) experience a higher level of stress. Therefore it is concluded that an employee’s work environment, on the basis of a superior–subordinate dyad, is his/her own creation.

Key words : Conflict, stress, karma, dharmic work environment

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 6(2) : 233-236, 2009

VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN INDIA

Lily Mondal

Government Training College, Hooghly, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

     Violence against women in India is a matter of grave concern. Different types of violence like rape, dowry deaths, domestic violence and trafficking of girls and women and their causes are discussed. Female infanticide, battering during pregnancy, sexual and psychological abuse, child prostitution and pornography are the few major barriers of women empowerment. These issues need serious attention to secure women’s rightful position in society.

Key words : Violence, battering, infanticide, prostitution, pornography, empowerment.

 J.Environ & Sociobio. : 7(1) : 2010

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(1) : 1-5, 2010

A NEW SPECIES OF HALTICOPTERA SPINOLA (HYMENOPTERA : CHALCIDOIDEA : PTEROMALIDAE) FROM HIMACHAL PRADESH, INDIA WITH A REVISED KEY TO INDIAN SUBCONTINENT SPECIES

T. C. Narendran and P. Girish Kumar*

Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Calicut, Kerala-673 635, India. E- mail : drtcnarendran@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT

A new species of Halticoptera Spinola, viz., Halticoptera shimlica Narendran and Girish Kumar sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Himachal Pradesh, India. Affinities of the species with its closest relatives are discussed. A revised key to the species of Halticoptera of the Indian subcontinent is also provided.

Key words : Halticoptera, new species, Pteromalidae  

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(1) : 7-16, 2010

SEVEN NEW MYXOSPOREA (MYXOZOA: BIVALVULIDA) FROM MARINE FISHES OF THE BAY OF BENGAL OFF WEST BENGAL COAST, INDIA

Nirmal Kumar Sarkar

Laboratory for fish protists, 28 Mogaltuli, Chinsurah 712101, West Bengal, India
E-mail. nirmalsarkar41@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract

Seven new myxosporeans (Myxozoa : Bivalvulida) have been described from marine fishes collected from the Bay of Bengal off West Bengal coast, India. These are Ceratomyxa lizae sp. n. from the gallbladder of Liza parsia, Myxobolus praeustuseas sp. n. from the liver of Carangoides  praeustuseas, Myxodavisia sonae sp. n. from the gallbladder of Arius sona, Pseudoalataspora scomberomorusi sp.n. from the gallbladder of Scomberomorusus sp., Sphaerospora johnae sp.n. from the kidney tubule of Johnius bengalirii, Zschokkella coelatusi from the gallbladder of Arius coelatus, and Zschokkella mystae  sp.n. from the gallbladder of Mystus gulio.

Key words :    Myxosporea, Bivalvulida, Ceratomyxa, Myxodavisia, Myxobolus, Pseudualataspora, Sphaerospora, Zschokkella, Bay of Bengal, India

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(1) : 17-22, 2010

ONE NEW SPECIES OF HOPLORHYNCHUS CARUS, 1863                                                                        (APICOMPLEXA : CONOIDASIDA) FROM ODONATE
INSECT IN WEST
BENGAL, INDIA

Susanta Ray*, S. Chattopadhyay** and D. P. Haldar*

*University of Kalyani, Nadia,**Krishnath College,  Berhampore

 

ABSTRACT

Present investigation records the morphology and life cycle of one new species of cephaline gregarine Hoplorhynchus Carus, 1863 (Apicomplexa : Conoidasida), viz., Hoplorhynchus brachythrii sp.n. from odonate fly Brachythemis contaminata (Fabricious) with a short description of seasonal prevalance of parasite and host infection from Murshidabad,West Bengal.

Key words :    Apicomplexa, Conoidasida, Cephaline gregarine, Insecta, Odonata, Hoplorhynchus

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(1) : 23-27, 2010

A NEW TREMATODE PATAGIFER SANYALI N. SP. (ECHINOSTOMATIDAE : ECHINOSTOMATINAE) FROM
A SITE NEARBY TO
AGASTHYAMALAI TIGER RESERVE FOREST, TIRUNELVELLI (DIST.), TAMIL NADU, INDIA

Shuvajit Chakrabarti* and Anindita Ghosh**

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata-700053

 

ABSTRACT

A new species of the echinostomatid trematode Patagifer sanyali n. sp. collected from intestine of Porphyrio poliocephalus obtained from a site nearby to Agasthyamalai Tiger Reserve Forest, Tirunelvelli (Dist.), Tamil Nadu, India is described and illustrated. The new species is compared with other species of the genus Patagifer and found closer to P. wesleyi Verma, 1936 and P. bilobus (Rud. 1819) Dietz, 1909 but it differs from them by its unique feature of bilobed testes, and having fifty collar spines. A key to the Indian species of the genus Patagifer Dietz, 1909 is provided to distinguish it from all of them.

Key words : Trematode, Patagifer sanyali, Bird host, Tamil Nadu

 

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(1) : 29-36, 2010

Intensive study on the scleractinian coral diversity of Pongibalu, South Andaman

R. Raguraman*, C.R. Sreeraj, Titus Immanuel and C. Raghunathan

 Zoological Survey of India, Andaman and Nicobar Regional Station,
Haddo, Port Blair–744 102, Andaman and
Nicobar Islands.

 

Abstract

Intensive field studies were carried out at Pongibalu coral reef in the Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park in South Andaman from March-September 2009 to investigate scleractinian coral diversity in the 3 predetermined plots on the reef covering a total area of 20,000 m2. A total of 76 species of hard corals were recorded with the live coral cover of < 50 percentage. Among the three plots, plot no. 2 harboured high species diversity with 43.3% live coral cover where existing concrete jetty acts as a substratum for the settlement and growth of the corals.

Key words : Scleractinia, Marine National Park, Coral Reef, Diversity, Andaman.

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(1) : 37-44, 2010

Diversity of Coccidian parasites (Coccidia : Eimeriidae) from Maharashtra

L. Bindu*, S. R. Nikam** and R. Nandi

  Zoological Survey of India, M. Block, New Alipore, Kolkata-700 053

 

ABSTRACT      

A total of 82 species (56 named and 26 unnamed) of coccidian parasites belonging to two genera, viz., Eimeria and Isospora have been found to occur in Maharashtra from various hosts, such as, in fishes (2 named and 9 unnamed species), reptiles (4 named species), birds (9 named and 14 unnamed species) and mammals (41 named and 3 unnamed species). Amongst the named coccidian parasites, five species viz., Eimeria knowlesi, E. hemidactyli, E. columbae, E. debliecki and E. zuernii constitute first report from Maharashtra state, while out of 26 unnamed species more than 10 species reported herein may be new species and need further study. Highest diversity of parasitic species (44 named and unnamed species) was recorded from mammalian hosts. The highest number of these coccidian parasites belongs to the genus Eimeria (48 named and 18 unnamed species) and less than one-fifth of the total eimeriid coccidian diversity listed from the genus Isospora (8 named and 8 unnamed species). Most of these coccidian parasite species were recorded from Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. Prevalence and pathogenicity of some of these species have also been discussed.

Key words : Coccidia, Eimeria, Isospora, Maharashtra

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(1) : 45-52, 2010

Diversity of Microzooplankton (Tintinnida) in Muttukadu backwaters, South East
Coast of India

Chitra, J* and Ramanibai, R

Unit of Biomonitoring and Management, Department of Zoology,
University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai–600 025.

 

ABSTRACT

Species composition, density and diversity of tintinnids along with hydrographical parameters in Muttukadu backwaters (Lat. 1247’N, Long. 8015’ E), South East coast of India were studied from February 2004 to May 2006. Fifteen species of tintinnids were recorded and among them, Favella ehrenbergi and Favella philippinensis were dominant during the study period. The observed maximum population density of tintinnids were 1,58,500 ind/m3 at location 1 during  postmonsoon season in February 2006 may be due to the higher levels of salinity (ppt) and the higher peak in physicochemical parameters observed in postmonsoon seasons during the study period. The richness of phytoplankton showed their higher productivity and  population density during 2005 in all the seasons after tsunami event.

Key words : Tintinnida, Muttukadu backwaters

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(1) : 53-55, 2010

MACROINVERTEBRATE DIVERSITY OF INDRABEEL,
WEST BENGAL

Mousumi Roy

Kishore Bharati Bhagini Nivedita College, Department of Zoology,

148, Ramkrishna Sarani, Vivekananda Pally, Behala, Kolkata–700 060, West Bengal. 

E mail: mousumiroy@rediffmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

A total of 46 macroinvertebrate species belonging to 5 major groups, viz., crustacea (6 species), insecta (21 species), arachnida (4 species), mollusca (14 species) and annelida (1 species) have been recorded from Indrabeel, Puruliya district, West Bengal. Gastropoda and insecta are the most dominant groups, the latter representing highest diversity of 21 species, followed by gastropods (14 species).

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(1) : 57-64, 2010

Activities of Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra Linn. 1758) in rainy season : A study in the agricultural pastures of Ganjam district, Orissa, India

Arun Kumar Roy Mahato, Ramakrishna and M. Raziuddin*

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata.

Email : mahatoarun_zsi30@yahoo.com

 

Abstract

Eight territorial males of Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra Linn. 1758) were observed by Focal animal sampling method at the agricultural pastures of Ganjam district, Orissa, India in rainy season in order to determine the influences of anthropogenic activities and food patches distribution on their behaviour. It was observed that Blackbucks spent most of their time in feeding throughout the season. Time spent in lying was lowest at the peak monsoon (3.12%) in comparison to pre monsoon (14.6%) and post monsoon (7.91%). Contrary to that, the time spent in walking was highest at the middle of monsoon (27%) compared to pre-monsoon (15%) and post-monsoon (17%). The average time spent in standing showed very little seasonal variation. Other activities like rubbing, thrashing, circling, sparring, dominance display and urination-defecation were highest at pre-monsoon (6.43%) and minimum at the peak monsoon (1.87%). Diurnal activity pattern varied greatly throughout the season. In rainy season feeding and lying showed opposite peak of diurnal rhythm and significant differences were found in these activities (F = 6.51, p < 0.0001for feeding; F = 2.98, p < 0.01 for lying). Variation in the frequencies and average duration of feeding, walking, lying and others activities were found while the frequency of standing did not vary as season proceeded. It was also found that the distribution of food patches and disturbances by anthropogenic activities due to agricultural works played important role in the variation on the activity time-budget and activity patterns of Blackbuck.

Key words : Blackbuck, Activity pattern, Feeding, Lying, Walking, Monsoon

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(1) : 65-68, 2010

YIELD LOSS IN TWO RICE CULTIVARS BY THE SMALL RICE GRASSHOPPER, OXYA NITIDULA (WALKER)

D. Suresh Chand and M.C. Muralirangan*

Arunachal Pradesh Research Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Itanagar-791113

 

ABSTRACT

Present investigation aimed at evaluating the yield loss of two rice cultivars CO43 and CO45 by the small rice grasshopper Oxya nitidula (Walker). Three different growth stages of the cultivars were selected 31 days after sowing (DAS), 46 DAS, and 61 DAS for evaluating the damage potential by the small rice grasshopper. Infestation was carried out at different population level, 2 insects/cage, 4 insects/cage, 6 insects/cage and 8 insects/cage. Damage caused by the insects was directly related to the grains harvested on the two rice cultivars. The result suggests that grain loss increased with increasing number of insects infesting the plant. At 31 DAS treatment damage was more, compared to other DAS treatments.

Keywords : Oryza sativa, Oxya nitidula, yield loss

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(1) : 69-79, 2010

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF DYING AND BLEACHING INDUSTRIES AT CHATTA KALIKAPUR, WEST BENGAL

Abhinandan Sengupta, Mrinal Mukherjee2, Bhaskar Majumder, Naveen Kumar3 Department of Environment and Development, Jadavpur University and
Paschim Banga Vigyan Mancha, South 24 Parganas District unit , West Bengal

 

 

ABSTRACT

The study aims to find out the causes of environmental degradation and it’s correlation with socio-economic problems of Chatta Kalikapur Mouza of Thakurpukur-Maheshtala Block, South 24 Parganas district, West Bengal where Jeans- fading industries have been mushrooming since 1992. A survey was done to understand the locus of the Dying and Bleaching industry from economic, environmental and social view point. Water samples were collected and analyzed both for physico-chemical parameter and for plankton diversity. Data of soil characteristics taken from State Agriculture Department were also analyzed. The study of land use and change of crop pattern along with water and soil study clearly revealed a rapid degradation of environment. The overall economic development was found to shatter for uncontrolled growth of dying and bleaching industries, making the social fabric more fragile. The study also tried to throw light on the mitigation strategy.

Key words :         Dying and Bleaching industry, Water parameters, Plankton diversity, Mitigation strategy

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(2) : 85-92, 2010

FISH AND FISHERIES OF IRIL RIVER, MANIPUR, WITH
A NOTE ON CONSERVATION STRATEGIES FOR THREATENED SPECIES

Laishram Kosygin, L. Somananda Devi* and Haobijam Dhamendra**

Zoological Survey of India, Gopalpur-on-Sea 761 002, Orissa

ABSTRACT

An attempt has been made to study the fish resources of Iril river, Manipur, based on present collection and those reported by the earlier workers. A total of 62 species of fishes representing 40 genera and 18 families has been recorded from the river. These fishes include 7 endangered (EN), 15 vulnerable (VU), 9 lower risk–near threatened (LRnt) and 3 lower risk-least concern (LRlc) species. The fish fauna of the river is a mixture of endemic hill stream, Burmese, Assamese and some widely distributed forms. The river has high fisheries potential as it harbours many commercially important food fishes and its water quality is within the tolerance limit of class ‘D’ water. Strategies for conservation of threatened fishes are suggested.

Key words :   Fish fauna, water quality, threatened species, conservation, Iril river, Manipur

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(2) : 93-106, 2010

INVENTORY OF WETLANDS of Nadia District, West Bengal, India AND THEIR CHARACTERIZATION AS NATURAL RESOURCES

Goutam Bala* and Ambarish Mukherjee

UGC Centre for advance studies, Department of Botany
University Burdwan, Burdwan-713104, West Bengal, India

ABSTRACT

An inventory of wetlands, which includes the gathering of information on (i) location, size, biotic and abiotic features and status of these resources, (ii) characteristics, function, treats and positive actions related to the use of the wetlands and (iii) design and development, is a prerequisite database for effective management and monitoring. This can be accomplished effectively if the inventory is prepared using methods that identify distinct wetland units and provide information of the particular wetland. To achieve this, an inventory of 75 wetlands of Nadia district of West Bengal, India has been prepared, adopting modified classification system used by Zalidis et al. (1997).

Key wards : Wetlands, inventory, mapping of wetland status

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(2) : 113-120, 2010

EFFECT OF EFFLUENT FROM AN OIL BLENDING INDUSTRY ON GUPPY FISH, Poecilia reticulata :
A BIOASSAY APPROACH

Moumit Roy Goswami, Udayan Bhattacharya, Saikat Sinha Roy, Chiranjit Basu Mallick, Soumendranath Talapatra and Aniruddha Mukhopadhyay*

Department of Environmental Science, University of Calcutta
51/2, Hazra Road, Kolkata  700019, India

ABSTRACT

Effluent released from different industries into the nearby water bodies leads to pollution of the aquatic environment and hence it is one of the major concerns of the modern world. The detrimental effects of different industrial effluents can be assessed by means of bioassay using wide range of living organisms including fishes. In the present experiment bioassay was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of the effluent from an oil blending industry on guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) under laboratory conditions. Fishes exposed to different dilutions of the effluent exhibited behavioural changes, such as, gasping and inconsistent movements as an indicator of stress. The LC50 of the effluent at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours were found to be 97.84% (i.e., 2.16% dilution), 87.74% (i.e., 12.26% dilution), 73.67% (i.e., 26.33% dilution) and 67.92% (i.e., 32.08% dilution) respectively. The result clearly shows that effluent posed considerable amount of toxicity on the selected fish species.

Key words : Bioassay, Poecilia reticulata, Effluent, LC50, Probit analysis

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(2) : 107-112, 2010

Eco-degradation to Eco-restoration of
Chilika lagoon : An overview

Anil Mohapatra* and P.G.S. Sethy

Zoological Survey of India, FPS Building, 27, J. L. Nehru Road, Kolkata 700 016

Abstract

Chilika lagoon is the largest coastal lagoon in the Indian subcontinent and the much focused Ramsar site of international importance. The lake being an assemblage of shallow to very shallow marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystem and having rich fishery resources witnessed rapid eco-degradation during the last few decades, with increasing sediment loads, decreasing salinity and several other natural changes coupled with incessant anthropogenic pressure, which have altered the natural attributes of the lagoon. The present paper communicates the detailed account from degradation to restoration of the lagoon.

Key words :   Lagoon, eco-degradation, eco-restoration, hydrological intervention, catchment treatment

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(2) : 121-126, 2010

Aquatic and Wetland plants of West Bengal

Subir K Ghosh

Society for Ecoaquaculture and Better Environmental Development (SEABED)
25-B Salimpore Road, P.O. Dhakuria, Kolkata-700031

 

Abstract

Diversity of wetland plants of West Bengal is richest in India and is represented by more than 380 species belonging to 170 genera and 81 families. Wetlands of
West Bengal covering only about 8.5% of the wetland areas (considering water
bodies > 100 ha) of India, provide shelter for more than 60% diversity of aquatic and wetland plants.

Freshwater wetland habitats of West Bengal harbour 6 genera and 8 species of aquatic and wetland pteridophytes, 19 genera and 32 species of strictly aquatic monocot and 8 genera and 12 species of dicot representatives. Considering flowering plant families having representatives in wetland habitat of West Bengal with respect to their counterparts in terrestrial habitat of India, there are more than 271 species belonging to 103 genera and 39 families. Salt water angiosperm or typical mangrove plant diversity of the Sundarbans of West Bengal is represented by 54 genera and 79 floral species of true mangroves and mangrove associates distributed in 44 families.

A recent survey implies that more than 45 species have become rare, 5 species are already endangered and 6 species are under threat. Current status of some threatened species of West Bengal wetlands are also dealt with in the paper.

Key words :   Plant community, macrophytes, bryophytes, pteridophytes, angiosperms, threatened species

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(2) : 127-131, 2010

TWO NEW SPECIES OF KUDOA MEGLITSCH (MULTIVALVULIDA : KUDOIDAE) FROM THE FISHES OF Sundarban COAST OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

Nirmal Kumar Sarkar
Protist Research Laboratory, 28 Mogaltuli, Chinsurah 712101, West Bengal, India

ABSTRACT

Two new species of Kudoa Meglitsch, 1947 (Multivalvulida, Kudoidae), viz., Kudoa kalae sp.n. a quadrate type and Kudoa hoffmani sp.n. a stellate type from the gallbladder of fishes Arius arius and Arius crosscheilus (Arridae) respectively collected from Sundarban coast of West Bengal, India have been described.

Key words :   Kudoa hoffmani, Kudoa kalae, Kudoidae, Arius arius, Arius crosscheilus, Sundarban coast

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(2) : 141-146, 2010

POLYCHAETES OF THE WETLANDS OF WEST BENGAL

Santanu Mitra* and A. Misra**

Zoological Survey of India, F.P.S. Building, 27, J. L. Nehru Road, Kolkata 700016

ABSTRACT

A total of 74 species of Polychaetes belonging to 51 genera and 28 families have been reported so far from West Bengal wetlands. Out of these, only two species, viz., Aelosoma bengalensis and Lumbrineris pseudobifilaris are reported from freshwater habitats and the remaining are from brackishwater, estuarine and caostal habitats of the state. A list of all these species along with their habitat, district-wise distribution in the states and local status is presented in the present communication.

Key words :   Polychaetes, macrobenthic, wetland, endemic

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(2) : 147-187, 2010

DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA FAUNA in WETLANDS OF WEST BENGAL

M. K. Dev Roy
Zoological Survey of India, Crustacea Section
27 Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Kolkata- 700016

ABSTRACT

An inventory of crustacean species occurring in different wetland ecosystems of West Bengal is presented in the form of a systematic checklist. The inventory includes 535 species of crustaceans belonging to 283 genera and 119 families showing district-wise distribution of each species in the state. Of these, brachyuran crabs represent the highest diversity of species (152) followed by copepoda (114 species) and cladocera (81 species). Crustaceans belonging to Conchostraca, Anostraca, Gebiidea, Tanaidacea and Cumacea are represented only by a single species each. Crustacean species which inhabit diversified freshwater, brackishwater, estuarine and coastal wetlands of South 24-Parganas district shows the greatest diversity.

Key words : Wetland, crustacea, diversity, distribution, West Bengal

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 7(2) : 189-194, 2010

CATFISH DIVERSITY OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

S. S. Mishra, M. Chakrabarty, S. Kar and K. C. Gopi

Fish Division, Zoological Survey of India, J. L. Nehru Road, Kolkata 700016

Abstract

The present paper deals with Catfish diversity of West Bengal. Taxonomic review of all the concerned publications reveals the occurrence of 86 species of Catfishes in this state. These species are listed in the present paper under their respective families along with their distribution.

Key words : Catfish, diversity, taxonomic review.

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 1-24, 2011

Biodiversity Scenario in India

F. B. Mandal and A. K. Ghosh*

 Department of Zoology, Bankura Christian College, Bankura-722 101, West Bengal

Abstract

India, the seventh largest country in the world with 2.4% global space and a total area of 3,287,263 sq km, belongs to Oriental realm. Being the Asia’s second largest nation it provides shelter to about  90,000 animal species in less than 50% geographical region surveyed so far. With over 45,000 registered wild plant species, India accounts for about 8.5% of world’s known species of flora and fauna. Mega diversity countries altogether hold 60 to 70% of world’s biodiversity. India, one of the mega diversity countries, has so far protected 4.3% of its total land area. It is well-known for original home land for many agricultural crops. It is also noted for high endemicity, especially in the Himalaya and Western Ghats. Besides species diversity, India represents every major ecosystem diversity from the mountains, to forests, deserts, wetlands, mangroves, islands, etc. Besides the recognized hotspots, like Western Ghats and eastern Himalaya, India is endowed with other rich biodiversity locales. Conservation efforts have sometimes been conflicting, affecting tribal populations, living within or near protected areas. Information on recorded Indian biodiversity appears to be fragmentary, although a consolidated account would be significant in effective policy making for conservation at national as well as international levels, sustainable use of bioresources and for ensuring our biofuture. The present communication attempts to sum up the relevant up to date biodiversity information known from India succinctly that would have significance to researchers, policy makers and conservation biologists. Ecosystem-, species- and genetic diversity are discussed along with a note on agro- and livestock- biodiversity. Following CBD in 1992, to which India is a party, it has enacted “Biological Diversity Act” in 2002 and "Biological Diversity Rules” 2004, offering a three tier management system to ensure Access and Benefit Sharing mechanism for sustainable use and promoting conservation.

 Key words :     India, biodiversity, ecosystem, forest, grassland, desert, wetland, mangrove, marine, coral

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 25-42, 2011

Ecosystems and human well-being

F. B. Mandal, C. Chatterjee and A. Ghosh

Department of Zoology, Bankura Christian College, Bankura-722101, West Bengal

ABSTRACT

Over the past 50 years, humans have altered their environment to a significant extent, although human well-being is dependent on ecosystem functioning. Ecosystems are particularly affected by unsustainable use of resources, such as, food, water, and timber. Ecosystem functions depend on water, carbon, and other nutrients cycles. Human activities have modified these cycles in a number of way. Use of ecosystems for recreation, spiritual enrichment, cultural purposes, and for other short term benefits is growing continuously, although ecosystem capacity to provide such services has reported to be declined significantly. Human well-being depends on material welfare, health, good social relations, security and freedom, which are affected by changes in ecosystem services. Intensive ecosystem use often produces short-term advantage.

Poverty level remains high in more than one billion people, who are dependent on ecosystems with an income of less than $1 per day as reported elsewhere. Regions including some parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America have the greatest ecosystem-related problems and are facing developmental challenges. Habitat change occurs, for instance, when the area of land used for agriculture or cities is expanded. Instability and unproductivity including desertification, water logging, mineralization and many other unwanted outcomes throughout the world are continuing. Habitat fragmentation by roads, canals, power lines limits the species potential for dispersal and colonization. Indirect drivers, like changes in human population, economic activity and technology as well as socio-political and cultural factors affect ecosystems by influencing direct drivers. World climate has changed and continues to change, affecting temperature, rainfall and sea levels.

Intensive fertilizer use has polluted ecosystems. Climate change and high nutrient levels in water are becoming increasing problems. Ecosystem management for short-term benefits is increasing. Loss of biodiversity makes it difficult for ecosystems to recover from damage. Once an ecosystem has undergone an abrupt change, recovery to the original state is slow, costly, and sometimes impossible. Changes in ecosystems complexity- functioning relationships could diminish the stability, resistance and resilience of managed terrestrial ecosystems, and may jeopardize important food and fibre sources, and ability of natural ecosystems both to provide natural resources, and to  remove pollutants from atmosphere.

Ecological complexity and ecosystem functioning depend on factors that govern species coexistence. Complexity of landscapes is determined by number of ecosystem types, their characteristics, their sizes and shapes, and associated connectivity. Complexity at this scale would have large consequences on regional to global scale processes. Presence and arrangement of keystone ecosystem types, such as, wetlands often determine total carbon and nitrogen balance of a region. Changes in average or extreme environmental events and intense land use management are believed to increase species extinction rate in isolated habitat fragments. Loss of key species, such as, top predators, fruit dispersers and pollinators from habitat may severely disrupt ecosystems functioning. Land use changes due to expanding urbanization, concomitant landscape fragmentation and intensification of production systems. Such change results in transformation of an ecosystem, form one state to another state, via a transition phase.

The combined value of 17 ecosystem services has been reported in the estimated range of US$16-54 trillion per year by Costanza and others. About 30% of modern medicines are developed from plants and animals, and 10 of the world’s 25 top-selling drugs in 1997 were reported to be derived from natural sources. Global market value of pharmaceuticals derived from genetic resources is estimated at US $ 75 000-150 000 million annually. Some 75% of the world’s populations rely for health care on traditional medicines, which are derived directly from natural sources as recorded elsewhere. Socio-economic development of human civilization and human well-being depends on long-term health of environment including ecosystems. Environmental problems are generally addressed in isolation, but practically such problems are interrelated, and originate from the root cause of unsustainable development. Damage to natural ecosystems and release of environmental pollutants must be minimized for protecting natural ecosystem, and human well-being.

Key words :      Ecosystem services, Human well-being, Drivers of changes, Ecosystem functioning, Global warming, Human population growth, Land conversion

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 43-56, 2011

WETLANDS AND WETLAND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT SCENARIO IN INDIA

N. C. Nandi

Social Environmental and Biological Association, Biren Roy Road (West), Kolkata-700 061 Email : nepalchandra.nandi@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

The present paper deals with extent, distribution and threats to wetlands as well as their biodiversity conservation and management scenario in India. The state-wise distribution of wetlands reflects highest area of natural wetlands in Gujarat and man-made wetlands in Karnataka. Madhya Pradesh has the highest area of reservoirs (0.29 million ha), while the freshwater tanks and ponds is represented highest in Tamil Nadu (0.69 million ha) and that of floodplain lakes in Assam (0.1 million ha). Major threats to major categories of freshwater and brackishwater wetlands in India include encroachment, reclamation, habitat destruction, siltation, timber cutting, over-exploitation, weed infestation, eutrophication, pollution and poaching of wildlife, etc. The major initiatives, activities, strategies and management needs towards conservation and management of wetlands in India have been depicted and discussed. An integrated area development approach to wetland conservation and management at the Block Development level in rural areas and at the municipal level in urban areas is suggested. A model of multipurpose concept of wise use of wetlands under the umbrella of an Integrated Area Development Network Programme (IADNP) is shown towards conservation and sustainable development representing urban wetlands in Kolkata.

Key words :      Wetlands, Biodiversity conservation, Integrated management, Ideal values, Kolkata model

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 57-67, 2011

Non-Invasive Genetic Analysis in
Biodiversity Conservation

Anindita Mitra

Dept of Zoology, Bankura Christian College, Bankura-722 101, West Bengal

 

Abstract

Biodiversity means the variety of genes, species, population and ecosystems. Genetic diversity fuels the engine of evolution and is essential for survival of species. In conservation genetics, DNA markers are being increasingly used for gathering information on species diversity. Conservation biology and population analysis of different animals thus ensure to preserve species as dynamic entities capable of coping with environmental change. Species and population genetic assessment demands easy, fast, less expensive and reliable DNA extraction methodologies. Among different procedure of obtaining DNA samples, non-invasive analysis is now widely accepted method for retrieving the genetic data from many endangered species.

Non-invasive sampling of hair, faeces, feathers or sloughs is currently used for molecular genetic studies of endangered species. Such genetic sampling is less stressful for animals and sampling of large population can be possible without visual/physical contact. Characterization of non-invasive material using molecular markers like Major Histocompatibity Complex (MHC), Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and microsatellites, minisatellites and mitochondrial DNA allows biologists to identify and count individuals in wild population, to identify the sex of those individuals and determine their movement pattern, to infer parentage, kinship and relatedness and to assess pathogen and diet. The non-invasive methods are less expensive than the most reliable traditional field method and preferable from an ethical point of view. This study is an attempt to discuss the issues and wide ranging application of non-invasive genetic analysis in light of modern research.

Key words : Genetic diversity, non-invasive genetic analysis, molecular markers

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 69-78, 2011

BIODIVERSITY INFORMATICS : A SILENT REVOLUTION FOR MANAGEMENT OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY DATA AND INFORMATION

Jayanta Sinha, Piyali Chattopadhyay Sinha* and Tandra Sarkar**

Department of Zoology, B. B. College, Asansol, West Bengal, India
E-mail. jayantasinha02@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Biodiversity is generally categorized into genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity. As a part of the global initiative for conservation of biodiversity, floral, faunal and microbial diversity is to be documented providing detailed account of the species of all the countries and regions through an integrated and interactive information system. Such information system or Biodiversity Informatics helps in improved management, presentation, discovery, exploration and analysis of data and information on Biological Diversity.

Biodiversity data are grouped as Global data, Conservation areas data, Species data, Genetic data and Biological Reference Collections. Biodiversity Informatics and its activities may be utilised for different applications that include Forestry, Invasive alien species, Systematics and Evolutionary biology, Taxonomy and Identification systems. Further there must be development of new tools, services and standards for management and access of data.

There are many international efforts of generating and maintaining data on Biological Diversity. These are Bionet, Diversitas, Cenplank, Fishbase, Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), Forests Resource Assessments (FRA), GOOS, GTOS, IOPI, Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), MIRCENS and SPECIES 2000, etc.

Many Global Biodiversity Information Centers are developed all around the world. Some of them are Bird Life International, Conservation International, FAO, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, IUCN, UNEP, Wetland International, WCMC, etc. In India, an attempt to portray vegetation cover, fragmentation, disturbance and biological richness across the landscape is organized in the form of Biodiversity Information System (BIS) under the joint supervision of Department of Space and Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. Further, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) have paved the way to map and analyze distribution of different biological resources. GIS based procedures can be successfully used for capturing spatial and environmental details on Biodiversity. At present there is a key trend to digitalize biodiversity data by collection, maintenance, and they are then distributed through user friendly Internet.

Key words :      Biodiversity Informatics, Biodiversity, Biogeographical Information System

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 79-84, 2011

Impact of epidemiological transition on biodiversity

Anupam Ghosh, Avijit Mukherjee and Fatik Baran Mandal

Department of Zoology, Bankura Christian College, Bankura-722101, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

Modern human civilization, now undergoing the third epidemiological transition, is characterized by newly emerging infectious diseases as well as reemerging infectious diseases which were previously thought to be under control. Such transition is mainly caused by globalization and ecological disruption including biodiversity loss, pollution and global climate change. Disruption of normal ecosystem function through anthropogenic inputs causes an ecosystem to be less resilient, more vulnerable to shocks and disturbances and less able to supply required material for human with needed economical as well as social services and results in an unhealthy environment in which we live. In this degraded environment, biodiversity loss diminishes the supplies of raw materials for drug discovery and biotechnology, causes a loss of medical models, affects the spread of human diseases and threatens food production, and water quality. Human susceptibility to infections becomes further compounded by malnutrition due to food insecurity, over population and potential alterations in the human immune system caused by increased flux of ultraviolet radiation and due to ozone layer depletion. Each environmental change, whether natural or anthropogenic, changes the ecological balance and context within which disease hosts or vectors and parasites breed, develop and transmit disease. All these events that upset normal environmental equilibrium result in the outbreak of recent epidemiological transition. To overcome this transition, the interrelationships between society and nature and the importance of environmental health in human health must be considered in a broader perspective.

Key words :      Biodiversity, Ecosystem, Emerging and reemerging diseases, Epidemiological transition

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 85-98, 2011

Detection and Analysis of Depletion of Mangrove Forest of Indian Sundarban using Remote Sensing and GIS

Somnath Mukherjee

Department of Geography, Bankura Christian College Bankura-722101, West Bengal
Email : somnathmukherjee_geo@yahoo.co.in

 

 

Abstract

The deltaic Sundarban of eastern India is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world and got the inscription as a ‘UNESCO World Heritage Site’. The area occupied by the swampy vegetation is about 4260 km2 of the huge inter-tidal area of 9630 km2 of Indian Sundarban. Unfortunately, the forest has been continuously depleted due to various reasons which in turn will not only disturb the balance of the whole ecosystem but also severely affect the physical, social and economic condition of the people inhabited mainly in the lower Gangetic plain.

In this regard, management and planning of the forest through only age-old manual inspection has been the tough task to overcome the problems. So, the situation demanded the application of modern technologies and in this context, the present paper seeks to highlight the necessity of understanding and application of using Remote Sensing and GIS, which are opening up new vistas for monitoring, mapping, analysing and management of world natural resources, especially forest based resources. Moreover, the same technologies enable us to compile gross forest vegetation resource data of the area under investigation in a single format and finally help to conserve the heritage like Sundarban in every concern.

The study areas under investigation are the salinity prone south-western part of Indian Sundarban covering Lothian, Siuth-Surendranagar and Dhanchi islands. The main objective of selection of these three islands is the conservation of mangrove forest with the help of periodic map analysis. Finally, the paper also locates the problems associated with the forest conservation and concludes with probable suggestions.

Key words :   Mangrove, Sundarban, Change detection, Monitoring, Deforestation, Conservation

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 99-102, 2011

RADIATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HARDWARE DISPOSAL–A THREAT TO BIODIVERSITY

Mahitosh De

Department of Physics, Bankura Christian College, Bankura-722101, West Bengal

 

Abstract

Unwanted electromagnetic radiation from different electronic equipments is a greatest threat to the environment. It has been observed that trees exposed to high frequency radiation converts these waves into electrical currents that flow down through  the tree bodies and change the two important parameters – the pH value and the electrical conductivity of the soil. Disappearance of bees, house sparrows, etc, are because of the coinciding mushrooming of the cell towers, electric clouds, high frequency transmission cable, etc. Again, continuous exposure of electromagnetic radiations to plant bodies results poor seed germination and have an adverse effect on enzyme activity. Attempt has been made to show the harmful effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones on plant and human bodies.

We can’t even think a day without computer or television or mobile phones. But the disposal of the hardwares of these communication equipments is a great concern to the ecology. The toxic solvents, acids and heavy metals that are used for manufacturing printed board circuits, cathode ray tubes for computer monitors, TV screens, etc., create environmental hazards. Moreover, these communication equipments become outdated very quickly and their repairing cost is more compared to the price of new goods. So these devices present a tremendous disposal problem. If not disposed of properly the metals from the cell phone and other electronic equipments can leak into the environment through corrosion and can cause a series of problems in the environment. Different types of hazards that creep in because of improper disposal of electronic items have been discussed in this paper.

Key words : Electromagnetic radiation, cell phone, cell tower, electronic waste

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 103-107, 2011

Diversity of Nematodes Inhabiting some Major Crop Plants of India With A Note On Their Biocontrol

Avijit Mukherjee, Anupam Ghosh, Chandranath Chatterjee,
Anindita Mitra and Fatik Baran Mandal

Department of Zoology, Bankura Christian College. Bankura-722 101, West Bengal

 

Abstract

Plant-parasitic nematodes present a formidable pest problem for different crops. Role of such nematodes in agricultural production has remained underestimated. Nematodes like root-knot cause heavy damage to world’s food crops, causing an estimated $125 billion loss in food and fiber crops annually. In India, the amount of damage due to these plant-parasitic nematodes accounts for 10-40% of total crop losses annually.  The present communication aims to provide an account of diversity of nematodes infesting some major crop plants in India, viz., Potato, Sorghum, Aroids, Arecanut, Ginger, Sugarcane and Rice. It also discusses various biocontrol methods for agriculturally important nematodes that would have relevance to sustainable agricultural practices.

Key words : Root-knot nematodes, Biocontrol, Fluorescent pseudomonads

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 109-114, 2011

 Role of Lac Culture in the Conservation of Biological Diversity : Fieldwork Findings from Purulia District in West Bengal

Biplob Kumar Modak and Saugata Basu*

Department of Zoology, A. M. College, Jhalda, Purulia, West Bengal

Email : bkmodak09@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

Paradoxically Purulia, which is a natural resource abundant district, is the most backward district in West Bengal. Tribal people maintain their subsistence by using those resources. Diverse small and cottage industries including lac are being run by natural resources. However, evidence reveals that for the last three decades Lac industry has been deteriorating in this district. In consequence, the tribal communities are in great crisis. The natural vegetations involved in lac cultivation (host plants of lac insects) have lost their importance to the poor inhabitants and become ‘trash tree’. They cut them down indiscriminately as ‘fire-wood’. As a result, lac-associated biodiversity is declining and the environmental balance is being disturbed. In such an adverse situation, this article seeks to disclose that adequate action should be undertaken to reduce or rule the deteriorating condition of lac industries, and thereby to restore both the biodiversity and the economic sustainability of the tribal people.

Key words :      Environmental balance, Lac-associated biodiversity, Lac-insect, Tribal communities

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 115-118, 2011

A population of flying foxes (Pteropus giganteus)

treated as sacred and protected by villagers

Somenath Dey* and Sanjib Chattopadhyay

Panchakot Mahavidyalaya; Sarbari; P.O. Neturia; Dist. Purulia; West Bengal

 

Abstract

A population of about 300 flying foxes (Pteropus giganteus) roosts on a tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) at Simla village of Purulia district, West Bengal. The site is about 15 km away from Adra railway town and on the Adra-Hura road. The colony is more than 100 years old and villagers consider the bats as permanent and sacred residents of their village. Every villager, aged or young, is so habituated with the colony that they traditionally protect the population from intruders and other potential harms. This finding has a relevance to biodiversity conservation with its own merit.

Key words : Flying fox, Pteropus giganteus, people’s caring attitude, sacred status

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 119-126, 2011

Indigenous medicinal plants used for Gynecological disorders by Tribals of Birbhum district, West Bengal and their conservation

Arpita Banerjee*, Chandan Mukherjee, Debasish Bakshi,
Manoranjan Chakraborty and Arijit Sinhababu

Department of Botany, Bankura Christian College, Bankura, Pin-722101, West Bengal

 

Abstract

Use of different plants for medicinal purpose is very common among the tribal communities of various regions of West Bengal. Tribals depend on herbal medicines for curing various gynecological disorders. Tribal women do not approach physicians due to lack of awareness and shyness or hesitation. Present paper deals with some indigenous medicinal plants used for treatment of various gynecological disorders by tribal women of Birbhum district (Bolpur subdivision), West Bengal. These plants are enumerated with binomial names, family, vernacular names, parts used and ethno medicinal uses by different tribes. Further studies on chemical and pharmacological actions are suggested to validate the claims.

Key Words :  Herbal healer, Tribal communities, Ethnomedicine, Gynecological disorders

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 127-132, 2011

Study of the Allelopathic Effect of Lantana camara Roots on the DIVERSITY OF Mycoflora of Ocimum sanctum

M. R. Chakraborty*, A. Sinhababu, D. Bakshi, A. Banerjee and C. Mukhopadhyay

Department of Botany, Bankura Christian College, Bankura-722101, West Bengal

 

ABSTRACT

Allelopathic interactions have a strong bearing on microbial activity and diversity in the soil, and they are important in the action of allelochemicals released in to the environment. Allelopathic interactions in plants play a crucial role in both natural and manipulated systems. These interactions also involve the effect on rhizosphere mycoflora of roots of other plants growing in the vicinity of the plants, releasing the allelochemicals. Allelopathic effect of Lantana camara was found to be very significant on the rhizosphere fungal population of Ocimum sanctum. The diversity of fungal species was also found to be higher in the rhizosphere soil of Ocimum sanctum growing away from the influence of leachates of Lantan camara roots. Some plant pathogenic species, such as, Curvularia sp, Fusarium sp, Penicillium sp and Rhizoctonia were found to be associated with rhizosphere of O. sanctum removed from the influence of allelochemicals. Small changes in soil properties arising from release of chemical substances can be of importance in the regulation of population dynamics of microbial community.

Key words : Allelopathy, Lantana camara, Ocimum sanctum

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 133-140, 2011

Diversity of Myxobolus Btschli, 1882 (Myxozoa : Myxosporea) in Food Fishes of South Bengal, India

Saugata Basu, Biplob Kr. Modak*, and Durga P. Haldar**

Department of Biology, Uttarpara Govt. High School, P.O. Uttarpara, Hooghly-712 258
West Bengal, India, Email : basusaugata@fastmail.fm, saugatatias@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

The genus Myxobolus Btschli, 1882 belongs to the class Myxosporea under the phylum Myxozoa. Large number of species have been described under this genus by different workers from various parts of this world. From food fishes of south Bengal, eleven species of Myxobolus were described by the present workers during 1998-2009. Brief diagnosis along with morphometric data of these species is communicated in the present paper.

Key words : Myxobolus, diversity, food fishes, South Bengal

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 141-147, 2011

Human Civilization - A Threat to Global Amphibian Diversity

Chandranath Chatterjee

Department of Zoology, Bankura Christian College, Bankura - 722101

 

Abstract

Dramatic declines in amphibian populations, including population crashes and mass localised extinctions, have been noted since the 1980s from locations all over the world. These declines are perceived as one of the most critical threats to global biodiversity, and several causes are believed to be involved, including disease, habitat destruction and modification, exploitation, pollution, pesticide use, introduced species, climate change and increased ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B). However, many of the causes of amphibian declines are still poorly understood, and the topic is currently a subject of much ongoing research.

Because amphibians generally have a two-staged life cycle consisting of both aquatic (larvae) and terrestrial (adult) phases, they are sensitive to both terrestrial and aquatic environmental effects. Because their skins are highly permeable, they may be more susceptible to toxins in the environment than other organisms, such as, birds or mammals. Habitat modification or destruction is one of the most dramatic issues affecting amphibian species world wide. Habitat fragmentation occurs when habitats are isolated by habitat modification, such as, when a small area of forest is completely surrounded by agricultural fields. Small populations that survive within such fragments are often susceptible to inbreeding, genetic drift or extinction due to small fluctuations in the environment.

There is evidence of chemical pollutants causing frog developmental deformities (extra limbs, or malformed eyes). Pollutants have varying effects on frogs. Some alter the central nervous system; others like atrazine cause a disruption in the production and secretion of hormones. Like many other organisms, increasing Ultraviolet-B
(UV-B) radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion and other factors may harm the DNA of amphibians, particularly their eggs. The amount of damage depends upon the life stage, the species type and other environmental parameters. Another possible cause of global declines is the collection of frogs as a food source.

Frogs being covered by a semi permeable skin are vulnerable to pollutnts and other environmentl stress. Consequently they can be used as environmental sentinels or biomonitors and can act as an early warning system for the quality of the environment and the potential threats to other animals including ourselves.

Key words :   Amphibia, Biodiversity, Habitat destruction, Pollution, Disease, Global warming

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 149-154, 2011

SEASONAL CATCH DIVERSITY OF MARINE FISHES IN
THE COASTAL BELT OF PURBA MEDINIPUR DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

Mrinmay Ghorai, Utpal Kr. Sar* and Bidhan C. Patra**

Department of Zoology, Panskura Banamali College, Purba Medinipur,West Bengal
India, e-mail: mrghorai@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

Marine fish catch contributes an important role in economic activity and nutrition in Purba Medinipur district of West Bengal. This district contains a stretch of 65 km coastal line covering five maritime development blocks which play a significant role for fish production and employment generation in West Bengal. There are 42 fish landing centres (locally known as khoties) wherein mainly 1.2 lakh coastal fisher folk are directly or indirectly involved in the sector. Though 98,308 mt of marine fishes have been reported from the coast, 34,021 mt fishes contribute major part in the marine catch of this study area. The present study was undertaken to assess the   seasonal catch diversity of major marine fishes for a period of three years from October (2003-04) to September (2005-06). The major marine fish species recorded in this coastal region are : Babla, Harpadon nehereus; Patia, Trichiurus sp; Tapra, Setipinna phasa; Chingri, Penaeid prawn; Kanta, Arius maculates; Pomfret, Pampus argentius; Bhola, Johnius sp; Ruli, Coilia dussumieria and Gogua, Acetes indicus, etc. Maximum catch were observed in the months of December and January for consecutive three study years and catch diversity of marine fish was also studied for the study period. Thus conservation of diversity of marine fish species is very much essential not only for biological aspects but also for long-term reliance on the marine resources of the coastal people.

Key words :      Catch diversity, coastal belt, seasonal catch, West Bengal

 

 

J. Environ. & Sociobiol. : 8(1) : 155-156, 2011

Snake diversity in WEST BENGAL

Bikashkanti Saha

C/o. ‘Hamadryad’, 230, Green Park, Narendrapur, Kolkata-700 103
Email : Bksaha1@Rediffmail.com

 

Abstract

Distribution of 112 species of snakes belonging to 9 families in four different ecoregions of West Bengal is communicated along with some suggestion for conservation of these species.